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全人类应该谴责正在发生在缅甸的政府支持和所谓“佛”教徒支持的对穆斯林的种族清晰和迫害


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【按】:应该谴责正在发生在缅甸的政府支持和所谓“佛”教徒支持的对穆斯林的种族清洗和迫害。打着宗教旗号,为邪恶政治服务,这样的国家和教徒令人不齿。

缅甸佛教,以禅修的教法,受到佛教界的关注。可是缅甸佛教界对国家现代政治文明和公民政治不作为,甚至不少“佛”教徒做了帮凶,凸显了人性的黑暗。

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以下2015年的文章仅供参考。


缅甸宗教冲突让人重新认识佛教

凯南·马利克

2014年5月22日

 

伦敦——对于西方自由主义者来说,或许没有比佛教更吸引人的宗教了。政客们欢迎-达赖喇嘛,名人们寻求进行佛教禅修,科学家和哲学家坚持认为,佛教能教我们很多有关人性及心理学的东西。

甚至一些所谓的新无神论者都倾倒于佛教的魅力。对于大多数支持佛教的西方人来说,佛教是一种深刻的人文主义观,它的哲学性高于宗教性,是一种创造和平与和谐的生活方式。

缅甸的罗兴亚人对佛教的看法则截然不同。罗兴亚人都是穆斯林,大多居住在缅甸西部与孟加拉国接壤的若开邦。早期的穆斯林社区可以追溯到七世纪。如今,在这个佛教徒占90%的国家,大约有800万穆斯林,其中每六个人中有一个人是罗兴亚人。

但对于缅甸政府来说,罗兴亚人根本不存在。缅甸政府正在开展全国人口普查,表格上共列出135个种族。明显少了一个:罗兴亚族,政府坚持认为该民族必须将称自己是“孟加拉人”(也就是外国人)。总统发言人叶杜(Ye Htut)最近表示,“如果我们询问一个家庭的种族,他们回答是罗兴亚族,我们不会接受。”

罗兴亚人面临的问题,比政府拒绝承认他们的身份严重得多。他们存在被灭族之忧

自2012年以来,出现了一系列屠杀罗兴亚人的恶性事件。佛教暴徒攻击并烧毁村庄、学校和清真寺,他们通常会得到安全部队的协助。数以百计的罗兴亚人被杀害,无家可归者达到14万人——超过了罗兴亚族人口的十分之一。独立机构“防止种族灭绝罪行哨兵计划”(Sentinel Project for Genocide Prevention)http://thesentinelproject.org/wp-content/uploads/Risk-Assessment-Burma-September-2013.pd f" href="http://thesentinelproject.org/wp-content/uploads/Risk-Assessment-Burma-September-2013.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">去年9月发表报告称,“最近的暴力事件不仅限于屠杀行动,”已经朝着“在整个地区开展种族清洗的方向发展”。

佛教僧人领导了这场反穆斯林的活动,他们称他们的行动符合宗教信仰的要求。主要的反罗兴亚人组织“969运动”的名字代表着佛祖的九大属性、佛祖教诲的六大义法,以及僧伽的九大属性。据称,该组织的领袖——名叫威拉杜(Wirathu)的僧人——称自己是“缅甸本·拉登(Bin Laden)”。他告诉一名采访记者,穆斯林“生育率高,而且非常暴力”。因为“缅甸人和佛教徒每天都会被吞噬,”他辩称,“国教需要受到保护。”

这名激进僧人曾提出了一项“国家种族保护法”,根据这项法律,想娶女佛教徒但不信仰佛教的男性必须皈依佛教,获得政府的许可。该提案获得了缅甸总统登盛(Thein Sein,又译吴登盛)的支持,可能会在6月底前成为法律。

广告

 

缅甸出现了佛教徒领导的大屠杀行动,鉴于这个丑陋现实,我们如何能接受佛教是和平思想的理念呢?

很少有人会认为是佛教固有的东西引发了迫害行为。大多数人会承认,缅甸的反穆斯林暴力活动源于该国的政治斗争。

于1962年开始执政的军政府不断寻求通过煽动对少数族裔的仇恨获得民众支持。军政府剥夺了罗兴亚人的公民身份,并在出行、教育及土地所有权方面对他们进行限制。该政府还对罗兴亚族的家庭施行“二胎政策”,以限制他们的人口。

吊诡的是,缅甸民主运动的成功反而导致罗兴亚人的问题愈发恶化。为了巩固自身地位,政府加重了仇恨言辞,而反对派拒绝支持罗兴亚人,担心这会使他们与占多数的佛教徒产生疏离。

民主运动的领导人——诺贝尔奖得主昂山素季(Daw Aung San Suu Kyi)一直可耻地保持沉默,只愿意泛泛地谴责暴力活动。她的全国民主联盟(National League for Democracy)的成员公开参与反罗兴亚人的极端组织。应为迫害行为负责的不是佛教信仰的信条,而是那些倾向于诉诸冲突的人,他们披着宗教外衣,以便获得支持,为他们的行动提供正当理由。缅甸的情况与很多其他涉及宗教团体的冲突相同——从巴基斯坦到尼日利亚,从印度尼西亚到中非共和国。此类暴力活动的蔓延促使很多人将宗教本身,特别是伊斯兰教看作冲突的根源。

当然,宗教的确在这些冲突中扮演了角色,但如果将它们看作纯宗教性的冲突,那就错了。当一些争夺政治权力的群体对宗教加以利用时,宗教的作用通常是确立沙文主义者的身份,沙文主义者认为,其他群体就是魔鬼,而他们自身的行动是正义的。

缅甸的反穆斯林暴力活动,可能会使我们开始质疑我们对佛教的既有看法。这些活动肯定会使我们质疑昂山素季的立场,在西方,人们普遍认为昂山素季是一个无畏的自由斗士。

虽然很多西方观察人士承认,缅甸的宗派暴力存在政治根源,但值得注意的是,没人愿意像谈论其他涉及伊斯兰教的冲突一样进行细致分析。罗兴亚人的困境或许会促使我们重新考虑全球范围内涉及宗教的冲突,推动我们采取不那么非黑即白的立场。

 

凯南·马利克(Kenan Malik)是一名作家、演讲者及广播节目主持人,他出版了《从圣令到圣战:拉什迪事件及其后果》(From Fatwa to Jihad: The Rushdie Affair and Its Aftermath)。


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若开邦的动乱已迫使数以万计的罗兴亚穆斯林逃到邻近的孟加拉。(法新社)

 (联合早报网讯)缅甸人权网络说,缅甸少数民族穆斯林遭迫害的情况并不局限在西北部的若开邦,缅甸各地日益出现更多对穆斯林的有系统迫害。

这个独立人权组织今天(2017年9月5日)在报告中说,这类迫害行为获得政府、部分佛教僧侣和民间极端民族主义组织的支持。

这份报告从2016年3月开始的八个月内,在超过46个城镇和村庄展开了350多次访问。该报告指出:“民主的过渡允许一般的偏见影响新政府的统治方式,放大了危险的观点,即穆斯林在以佛教人口居多的缅甸是异类。”

(达卡2017年9月4日综合电)联合国周一表示,自缅甸若开邦上月爆发冲突以来,至今已有8万7000名罗兴亚人逃到孟加拉国避难。

8月25日,若开邦发生连串袭警事件,过后政府军大举镇压罗兴亚穆斯林武装分子。双方激烈交战已造成至少400人死亡。

缅甸官员抨击罗兴亚武装分子焚烧民宅并造成老百姓死亡,但人权监督组织和逃往邻国孟加拉的罗兴亚人表示,缅甸军方发动纵火和杀戮行动,目的是逼他们离开。据悉,逃离边界的人数多达8万7000人,超过去年10月规模小得多的叛乱攻击造成的逃离人数。这对资源原已稀少的援助团体和社群带来压力。这些团体迄今共援助数十万难民逃离先前暴力。缅甸罗兴亚穆斯林逃难潮引发穆斯林国家的关注,在印尼,许多穆斯林上街抗议。缅甸驻雅加达大使馆周日被抗议民众丢掷汽油弹,所幸没有造成人员伤亡。土耳其总统埃尔多安上周则打电话给孟加拉国总统哈米德,献议提供协助,帮忙孟加拉国安置逃难的罗兴亚人。印尼外长雷特诺周日启程前往缅甸,她会在周一与缅甸国务资政昂山淑姬及其他官员会面,商讨解决罗兴亚人危机。她在行前表示,按照印尼总统佐科威维多多的指示,她将与昂山淑姬讨论若开邦人道主义问题。

 

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‘Textbook example of ethnic cleansing’: 370,000 Rohingyas flood Bangladesh as crisis worsens

A man stretches his arms out for food at a refu­gee camp for Rohingya Muslims in Bangladesh on Sept. 9. (Bernat Armangue/AP)

 

By Annie Gowen September 12 at 10:53 AM

 

DHAKA, Bangladesh — The number of Rohingya refugees fleeing a military crackdown in Burma has now topped 370,000, a crisis that the United Nations human rights chief called “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.”

 

Hundreds of thousands of the long-persecuted ethnic minority continued to stream via land and rickety boats into Bangladesh this week, arriving exhausted, dehydrated and recounting tales of nightmarish horrors at the hands of the Burmese military, including friends and neighbors shot dead and homes torched before their eyes.

 

“It seems they wanted us to leave the country,” said Nurjahan, an elderly Rohingya woman who escaped her burning village 10 days ago and ended up camped by the side of the road, unsure of where to go.

 

Speaking in Geneva on Tuesday, the International Organization for Migration put the number fleeing Burma at 370,000 but admitted that it could rise sharply.

 

“Clearly the estimates have been bypassed several times over,” said spokesman Leonard Doyle. “I’m reluctant to give a number, but obviously people fear that it could go much higher.”

Play Video 2:02

How Burma's Rohingya militants are involved in the crisis

 

More than 300,000 people, most belonging to Burma's Rohingya ethnic group, have fled their country for neighboring Bangladesh. Here's why the crisis is unfolding. (Jason Aldag, Max Bearak / The Washington Post)

 

As the refugees continue to inundate the area, ferry operators are charging about $122 for a river crossing — far out of reach for many of them.

 

Relief efforts have been rapidly overwhelmed, with stocks of food, temporary shelter kits and other supplies running low. Prices of vegetables, bamboo and plastic sheeting used to make shelters are soaring.

 

With camps full, many of the Rohingya refugees like Nurjahan have simply sat down on the roadside.

 

On Tuesday, Bangladesh’s prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, visited the camps in the Cox’s Bazar area of the country, which has sheltered thousands of the stateless Rohingya refugees since an earlier exodus in the 1990s. Her foreign minister has accused Burma of committing “genocide.”

She said Burma, also known as Myanmar, would have to take back its Rohingya refugees, since Burmese authorities “created this problem, and they will have to solve it.”

 

International condemnation of Burma’s leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, has intensified, along with repeated calls for her Nobel Peace Prize, which she won in 1991 as a result of her long fight for democracy in Burma, to be rescinded — something the Nobel committee has said will not happen.

 

On Monday, the White House issued a statement condemning the attacks and the ensuing violence, saying that it was “deeply troubled” by the ongoing crisis and “alarmed” by “allegations of human rights abuses, including extrajudicial killings, burning of villages, massacres, and rape, by security forces and by civilians acting with these forces’ consent.”

 

Matthew Smith, chief executive of Fortify Rights, a human rights group, said investigators from the group spent nine days at the border documenting those atrocities.

 

Suu Kyi has long had strong supporters in the U.S. Congress and in the Obama administration, who saw her as the one leader who could bridge the country’s tentative transition from military junta to civilian government.

 

But with Suu Kyi’s continued reluctance to speak out on the Rohingyas’ plight and the ensuing human rights crisis, her star has begun to dim. Her supporters say the episode has demonstrated how limited her powers are, as the military still controls 25 percent of the seats in the parliament as well as the security forces.

 

Burma’s more than 1 million Rohingya Muslims are essentially stateless, and the Burmese government considers them illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.

 

The minority group has endured decades of discrimination and neglect, which worsened in 2012 after Rohingyas clashed with Buddhists in Burma’s western Rakhine State. More than 100,000 were then confined to camps, where their movement, access to jobs and education were severely restricted.

 

A mother of two, Khadiza, 35, said they were used to living with violence but that this latest episode was different: “Both the army and the Buddhists attacked us this time.”

 

At first, her husband convinced her that things would improve, but when a neighboring village was burned, they decided to leave. As they were fleeing overland, their group came under fire and the couple were separated, she said. She has not seen her husband since.

 

“I have no idea where he is now,” she said. “I only came to save my two children.”

 

The exodus began Aug. 25 after an insurgent group of Rohingya militants called the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) attacked dozens of police outposts and an army camp, killing 12 and igniting days of violent retribution.

 

In addition to torching hundreds of villages and killing civilians, the Burmese military has been accused by Amnesty International and other human rights groups of planting land mines at the border, based on the wounds suffered by some of those escaping.

 

U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Raad al-Hussein on Monday pointed to satellite imagery and reports of “security forces and local militia burning Rohingya villages.”

“The Myanmar government should stop pretending that the Rohingyas are setting fire to their own homes and laying waste to their own villages,” he added, a swipe at Suu Kyi’s government, which has accused the Rohingyas of doing the torching themselves. He called it a “complete denial of reality.”

 

Since the emergence of armed Rohingya rebels, Suu Kyi’s government has shifted its position, framing it as a matter of national security rather than a humanitarian crisis. On Monday, her government spokesman, Zaw Htay, reiterated that position, saying in a statement that the government shares the concern of the international community over the “violence ignited by the acts of terrorism.”

 

Mushfique Wadud in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, contributed to this report.

 


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