《中部》内容简介

《中部》内容简介

《中部》(巴利文:Majjhima Nikaya)、《中尼迦耶》,为《巴利文大藏经》中经藏的组成部分,南传上座部佛教典籍。其一共有152部佛经,分为三编:《根本五十经编》、《中分五十经编》和《后五十经编》,这些经文涉及佛教的所有基本教义,包括四圣谛、业报、无我、禅定、涅槃等,还有驳斥婆罗门教和耆那教等外道思想。其对应的北传佛教经典为《中阿含经》。

以下中文材料源自郭良鋆的《巴利语三藏提要》。英文材料来自尊者菩提比丘的《中部》英文版。


《根本五十经编》(Mūlapaññāsam)

(一)根本法门品(Mūapppariyāya vagga )

1.《根本法门经》(Mūapppariyāya sutta)。

佛陀讲述一切法的根本法门。他指出当时社会流行的观点是将万物(包括涅槃)与自我联系起来。而正等觉如来则认为地是地,不认为自己是地或地是我的,不以地为快乐。他知道快乐是痛苦之根,知道从有产生生、老和死。因此他灭贪断欲,达到无上正等觉。

2.《一切漏经》(Sabbāsava sutta)。

佛陀指出能知能见的人能摆脱一切“漏”(烦恼)。摆脱“漏”的七种方法是见、护、用、忍、离、除和思惟。这样的人不会陷入“有我说”和各种邪见,而能摒弃贪欲,摆脱束缚,断灭烦恼。

3.《法嗣经》(Dhammadāyāda sutta)。

佛陀向众比丘讲述食嗣和法嗣两种比丘,前者注重求食,后者注重求法。佛陀赞扬法嗣比丘,因为这样的比丘少欲知足,勇猛精进。然后,舍利弗为众比丘讲述隐居之法,教导众比丘排除贪、嗔、痴等罪恶,遵循中道(即八正道),获得知见,导致平静和神通,达到正觉和涅槃。

4.《怖骇经》(Bhayabherava sutta)。

佛陀以自己在林中修道的亲身体验说明心中有贪嗔痴的人才会产生恐俱,而心中无贪嗔痴的人能降伏恐惧,进入四禅,领悟四谛,达到解脱。

5.《无秽经》(Anangana sutta)。

舍利弗讲述世上有四类人:一自身有污秽,并意识到自身有污秽,二自身有污秽,却没有意识到自身有污秽,三自身无污秽,并意识到自身无污秽,四自身无污秽,却没有意识到自身无污秽。舍利弗认为第一和第三类人是优者,第二和第四类人是劣者。舍利弗还向目犍连解释污秽是指嗔怒和不满,也就是恶、不善和欲境。

6.《愿经》(Ākankheyya sutta)。

佛陀教导众比丘,要实现心中愿望,就要奉守戒律,内心寂静,修习止观。

7.《布喻经》(Vatthupama sutta)。

佛陀教导众比丘要常使心净,勿使心秽。心秽堕恶,心净趋善。贪、嗔、痴等等是污秽。只有清除这些污秽,才会虔信佛法僧。这犹如染布,布若洁白,染色则鲜明;布若脏污,染色则黯淡。佛陀还教导婆罗门孙陀利迦·颇罗堕瓦遮说,在圣河中沐浴并不能涤除恶业,只有守戒修善,才能清净纯洁。

8.《损损经》(Sallekha sutta)。

佛陀教导众比丘要摒弃世间流行的种种我论和世界论,要依据正智如实认识到“这不是我的,这不是我,这不是我之我”。然后,佛陀讲述排除杀生、偷盗、妄语、贪、嗔、痴等等罪恶的五种法门:损损、发心、回避、上升和般涅槃。

9.《正见经》(Sammādiṭṭhi sutta)。

舍利弗讲述正见就是正确认识善恶及其产生的根源。恶是杀生、偷盗、淫欲、妄语、两舌、恶语、粗语、绮语、贪婪、嗔恚和邪见。恶的根源是贪、嗔、痴。善就是摆脱这些恶。善的根源是不贪、不嗔、不痴。达到正见的途径是正确认识贪、苦、老死、生、有、取、欲、受、触、六处、名色、识、行、无明和漏的产生和灭寂之道。

10.《念处经》(Satipaṭṭhana sutta)。

佛陀讲述身、受、心、法四念处,也就是身随观身而住,受随观受而住,心随观心而住,法随观法而住。佛陀指出四念处是净化众生、克服忧愁、摆脱苦恼、理解正理、达到涅槃的唯一途径。

(二)师子吼品 (Sihanāda vagga)

11.《师子吼小经》(Cūḷasihanāda sutta)。

佛陀讲述沙门与外道的区别。外道也可能认为自己与沙门一样信奉导师、信奉法、戒行圆满、亲近同法者。但是,两者在教义上存在差异。例如,外道不能全面认识四取:爱取、见取、戒禁取和我论取。而沙门能全面认识四取及其因缘,从而不取而达到涅槃。

12.《师子吼大经》(Mahāsihanāda sutta)。

佛陀讲述如来十力、四无畏、四生、五趣和涅槃之道。佛陀还详细讲述自己过去曾修习种种外道苦行,如贪苦行、厌离苦行、孤独苦行、住可怖丛林苦行和少食苦行,但都不能导致无上智慧,借以灭苦而解脱。

13.《苦蕴大经》(Mahādukkhakkhandha sutta)。

佛陀讲述欲味、欲患和欲出离,色味、色患和色出离,受味、受患和受出离。欲味是依色、声、香、味和触而生喜乐。在佛陀论列的种种欲患中,提到国王的刑罚,除了鞭抽、棍打、截手、截耳、截鼻外,还有“粥锅”、“贝秃”、“罗服嘴”和“火环”等惨烈酷刑。

14.《苦蕴小经》(Cūḷadukkhakkhandha sutta)。

佛陀讲述五欲味少而苦多、患多。佛陀还讲述自己在王舍城灵鹫山时,曾与尼乾子派(耆那教)苦行者对话。尼乾子派崇尚苦行,主张以苦得乐,说道:“如果以乐得乐,那么,尊者瞿昙比不上摩揭陀国频毗沙罗王之乐多。”佛陀以禅定之乐说明自己比频毗沙罗王之乐多。

15.《思量经》(Anumāna sutta)。

大目犍连讲述难于教诲和易于教诲两种人的表现,教导众比丘要善于自我思量,自我观察,做易于教诲之人,而不做难于教诲之人。

16.《心秽经》(Cetokhila sutta)。

佛陀教导众比丘要排除五种心之荒秽,斩断五种心之束缚,才能在佛法和戒律上长进和成熟。五种心之荒秽是于师怀疑、于法怀疑、于僧怀疑、于学怀疑和于同行不和。五种心之束缚是贪染、意欲、爱著、渴望和热恼。

17.《林薮经》(Vanapattha sutta)。

佛陀讲述有些比丘无论住林中、村中或都市中,都不能安心入定,断灭烦恼,因为他们念念不忘衣食床座医药资具。而有些比丘无论住在林中、村中或都市中,都能安心入定,断灭烦恼,因为他们认为自己出家修行并不是为了追求衣食床座医药资具。

18.《蜜丸经》(Madhupindika sutta)。

佛陀告诉释迦族执杖者 (Daṇḍapāṇṇ),他的学说能止息神、魔和婆罗门各界中的争论。执杖者听后,摇头缩舌,柱杖而去。然后,佛陀对众比丘宣讲自己的学说:人间盛行种种妄想,如果不生欢喜,不执著,也就消除贪、嗔、见、疑、骄、有欲和无明,也就消除棍棒刀剑、斗争、论争、恶语和妄语,这样就能灭尽罪恶。大迦旃延 (Mahakaccāna) 对佛陀所说法作了阐释,得到佛陀认可。

19.《双思经》(Dvedhāvitakka sutta)。

佛陀讲述自己在成佛以前修行时,运用成双思惟,在产生欲念、嗔念和害念时,便思考欲念、嗔念和害念的恶果,由此消除欲念、嗔念和害念。

20.《息思经》(Vitakkasanthāna sutta)。

佛陀讲述比丘追求增上心(更高的思想境界),应该注意五个特征:一、恶念产生时,应该思考善念;二、恶念仍产生时,应该观察这些恶念的危害;三、恶念仍产生时,应该忘却思念,不起思念;四、恶念仍产生时,应该止息思念;

五.恶念仍产生时,应该咬住牙齿,舌抵上颚,以心制心,由此降伏邪心,摒除贪嗔痴,内心安静,凝思入定。

(三)第三品 (Tatiya vagga)

21.《锯喻经》(Kakacūpama sutta)。

佛陀以譬喻说明比丘应当摒弃不善,犹如大婆罗树应该修剪曲干朽枝,才能挺拔高耸。以温顺静淑闻名的女居士韦提希迹禁不住婢女故意激怒,动手殴打婢女。因此,比丘应当于法崇敬,真心顺从。正如铁锨无法铲除大地,虚空无法绘画显像,火炬无法煮沸恒河,比丘应胸怀博大,布满慈悲。即使遇到盗贼,利锯加身,也不改慈悲心,不发恶语。

22.《蛇喻经》(Alagaddūpama sutta)。

比丘阿黎吒 (Ariṭṭha) 将佛陀说的障碍法,理解为非障碍法。佛陀据此指出,有些愚痴人学法,不以智慧理解真义,而徒资论辩,逞快口头。他们于法不得要领,容易招致不幸。这犹如捕蛇不抓头而抓尾,反让蛇回首咬伤致死。接着,佛陀又以筏喻法,说明欲求度脱,不应执著。譬如有人编筏渡河,到达彼岸后,不必再扛着筏走,而应将筏抛在岸边。佛陀以此教导众比丘说,法尚可舍,何况非法。

23.《蚁垤经》(Vammika Sutta)。

鸠摩罗迦叶长老 (Kumārakassapa) 向佛陀询问蚁垤之谜。佛陀解答说,蚁垤是四大组成的身体;贤者持剑发掘蚁侄蚁垤,剑是智慧,发掘是精进努力;发掘过程中,遇见的门闩是无知,蛙是嗔怒,叉道是疑惑,容器是五盖,乌龟

是五取蕴,屠宰场是五欲,肉脔是贪染;最后遇见的龙(蛇)是漏尽比丘。

24.《传车经》(Rathavinita sutta)。

舍利弗与富楼那弥多罗子 (Puṇṇa Mantāniputta) 互相问答,说明涅槃需要经过不同阶段,不能一蹴而就。戒清净、见清净、心清净、断疑清净、道非道知见清净、道迹知见清净和知见清净,本身都不是目的,而是达到涅槃的方法,犹如波斯匿王从王舍城至萨甘陀城,要乘坐七驿传车。

25.《撒饵经》(Nivāpa sutta)。

佛陀将沙门婆罗门比作鹿群,摩罗比作猎师,五欲比作猎师撒下的饵食,教导众比丘要摒除五欲,修习四禅,这样就能使摩罗目盲,不陷入摩罗的视界。

26.《圣求经》 (Ariyapariyesana sutta)。

佛陀讲述有两种追求:圣求和非圣求。非圣求是追求各种世俗生活之法。圣求是追求无上安稳涅槃。佛陀自述青年时代为圣求而出家,先后从师阿罗逻迦罗摩和郁头迦罗摩弗,未能得道。后来,在优楼毗罗的斯那聚落独自修行,获得无上安稳涅槃。然后,经梵天劝请,在鹿野苑初转法轮。

27.《象迹喻小经》(Cūḷahatthipādopama sutta)。

佛陀以捕象师能凭象迹识别真正的大象为喻,指出如来的足迹是戒、诸根防护、念、知、四禅、忆宿命智、生死智和漏尽智。

28.《象迹喻大经》(Mahāhatthipadoparna sutta)。

舍利弗告知众比丘,正如一切动物足迹可以纳入大象足迹中,一切善法也可以纳入四圣谛中。他着重解释了苦谛中的五取蕴(色、受、想、行、识)和四大(地、火、水、风)。

29.《心材喻大经》 (Mahāsāropama sutta)。

佛陀讲述有些人出家而得利养、恭敬和名闻,于是心满意足,自赞毁他,骄慢放逸,由此陷入苦境。这些人犹如入林选材,截取枝叶,抛弃树干。

30.《心材喻小经》(Cūḷasāropama sutta)。

本经内容与前经类同。佛陀讲述出家而得利养、恭敬和名闻,不应以此为满足,而应精进努力,修习戒定慧,达到不动心解脱。

(四)双大品(Mahāyamaka vagga)

31.《牛角林小经》(Cūḷagosiṅga sutta)。

本经佛陀赞美三位长老:阿㝹楼驮 (Anuruddha)、那提耶 (Nandiya) 和金毗罗 (Kimhila)。他们三人结伴住在牛角婆罗林中,友善和睦,精进努力,修习四禅定,皆得漏尽。

32.《牛角林大经》(Mahāgosiṅga sutta)。

大目犍连、大迦叶、阿难、阿㝹楼驮、离越多 (Revata) 和舍利弗一起谈论,在这风光秀丽的牛角娑罗林中,应该居住怎样的比丘才能使它增添光辉。阿难说于一切法多闻多记,离越多说乐于禅定,阿㝹楼驮说具有天眼通,大迦叶说安于林居,大目犍连说互相问法,舍利弗说能降伏心。佛陀肯定了这些说法,也提出一种比丘:不达漏尽,决不起座。

33.《牧牛者大经》(Malāgopālaka sutta)。

佛陀讲述牧牛十一法:知色、通相、除虫卵、治疮痍、放烟熏蚊、知渡处、知饮处、知道路、知牧处、挤干牛奶、尊敬老牛和带头牛,借以譬喻修行之法。

34.《牧牛者小经》(Cūḷagopālaka sutta)。

佛陀以牧牛者驱牛过河为譬喻,说明择师的重要性。正如愚蠢的牧牛者驱牛渡河时,不观察此岸彼岸有无渡头,横遭灭顶之灾,任何沙门婆罗门不明此界彼界、魔界非魔界和死亡界非死亡界,也会导致信众不幸。

35.《萨遮加小经》(Cūḷasaccaka sutta)。

尼乾子(耆那教徒)萨遮迦 (Saccaka) 能言善辩,闻听佛陀宣说“诸行无常,诸法无我”,率众与佛陀辩论。萨遮迦提出“色是我之我,受是我之我,想是我之我,行是我之我,识是我之我”。佛陀作出答辩:一、我对色、受、想、行、识并无支配力;二、色、受、想、行、识无常;三、无常者为苦。因此,它们都不能说成是我之我。萨遮迦听后,只得表示认同。

36.《萨遮迦大经》(Mahāsaccaka sutta)。

佛陀与萨遮迦谈论身修习和心修习。佛陀讲述自己的修行经历:先后从师阿罗逻迦罗摩和郁头迦罗摩弗,未能得道。然后,独自前往优楼毗罗的斯那聚落修习止息禅 (appānaka Jhāna),又实行绝食,以致身体瘦弱,仅剩皮骨。后放弃绝食,修习四禅,得宿命智、生死智和漏尽智,领悟四谛,达到解脱。

37.《爱尽小经》(Cūḷataṇhāsamkhaya sutta)。

帝释天下凡询问佛陀爱尽解脱法,佛陀为他说法。然后,目犍连升入三十三天观察帝释天是否理解此法。帝释天向目犍连夸示最胜殿。目犍连为挫其傲气,运用神通,以脚姆指力震撼最胜殿。帝释天惊恐不已,遵从目犍连的旨意,复述佛陀所说爱尽解脱法。

38.《爱尽大经》(Mahātaṇhāsankhaya sutta)。

渔夫之子比丘嗏帝认为识虽然流转轮回,但始终保持同一性。佛陀批驳嗏帝的这种错误见解,指出识依缘而生:缘眼于色而生眼识,缘耳于声而生耳识,缘鼻于香而生鼻识,缘舌于味而生舌识,缘身于触而生身识,缘意于法而生意识。已生者由四食(抟食、触食、思食和识食)所成。而四食也是依缘而生。佛陀详细讲述了十二因缘说,指出嗏帝身陷爱(贪)之大网中。

39.《马邑大经》(Mahā-assapura sutta)。

佛陀讲述名副其实的沙门婆罗门应该有惭愧心,身口意清净,守护诸根,饮食适度,保持警觉,具备正智,结跏趺坐,排除五盖,进入四禅,得宿命智、生死智和漏尽智,领悟四谛,达到解脱。

40.《马邑小经》(Cūḷa-assapura sutta)。

佛陀讲述作为沙门婆罗门,不在于穿袈裟、裸形或涂泥,住于露天或树下,诵咒或束发,而在于摒弃贪欲、愤怒、恼恨、妒忌、欺诳等等一切恶欲和邪见,住于慈悲喜舍,漏尽而得解脱。

(五)双小品 (Cūḷayamaka vagga)

41.《萨罗村婆罗门经》(Sāleyyaka sutta)。

佛陀讲述行非正道非正法者堕入地狱,行正道正法者升入天国。佛陀按照身口意列举了各种非正道非正法行为和正道正法行为。

42.《鞞兰若村婆罗门经》(Verañaka sutta)。

本经内容与前经相同,只是听众对象不同。

43.《有明大经》(Mahāvedalla sutta)。

本经说大拘絺罗 (Mahākotthita) 和舍利弗问答,论题涉及慧、识、受、想、清净意识、慧眼、正见、有、再生、五根和心解脱等。

44.《有明小经》(Cūḷavedalla sutta)。

本经说优婆塞毗舍佉 (Visākha) 和比丘尼法授 (Dhamma dinnā) 问答,论题涉及有身 (sakkāya) 即五取蕴、有身见和非有身见、八正道、三行、受想灭、三受和涅槃等。

45.《得法小经》(Cūḷadhamma samādāna sutta)。

佛陀讲述四种获取之法:一、现在乐得未来苦,如陷于淫欲者;二、现在苦得未来苦,如裸形苦行者;三、现在苦得未来乐,如常受苦忧而修习梵行者;四、现在乐得未来乐,如不受苦忧而修习四禅者。

46.《得法大经》(Mahādharnma samādāna sutta)。

佛陀讲述四种获取之法,论旨与前经基本相同。

47.《思察经》(Vimamsaka sutta)。

佛陀讲述观察如来是否正等觉的方法:观察如来依眼依耳可识之法是否纯净,是否无畏而寂静,断灭贪欲,无所执著。只有依据这样的观察,才会坚信如来和如来之法。

48.《㤭赏弥经》(Kosambi sutta)。

㤭赏弥众比丘发生争论,互相攻击。佛陀劝导他们要互相尊重,和合一致,教给他们六法:作慈身业、作慈口业、作慈意业、共食、共戒和共见。

49.《梵天请经》(Brahmanimantanika sutta)。

有一位名为婆伽 (Baka) 的梵天,认为世界永恒,没有转生,佛陀运用神通,升入梵天界,向婆伽宣示无常说。’然后,佛陀在婆伽前隐形,而婆伽不能在佛陀前隐形。婆伽自认不如佛陀,接受佛陀的说法。摩罗要求佛陀不要向他人宣示此法,佛陀予以拒绝。

50.《呵魔经》(Māratajjaniya sutta)。

摩罗化作细形进入目犍连腹中,目犍连便告诉摩罗:自己前生曾是名为杜辛 (Dūsin) 的摩罗,由于骚扰持戒比丘,用石块打伤尊者弟子毗陀罗 (Vidhura)的头,而堕入地狱,倍受煎熬。因此,他奉劝摩罗不要骚扰佛陀和佛弟子。摩罗听后,隐没不见。

《中分五十经编》 (Majjhimapaṇṇāsam )

(一)居士品 (Gahapati vagga)

51.《乾达罗伽经》(Kandaraka sutta)。

佛陀讲述世上有四种人:一、折磨自己;二、折磨他人;三、折磨自己和他人;四、不折磨自己,也不折磨他人,无欲清凉,幸福快乐。

52.《八城经》(Aṭṭhakanāgara sutta)。

阿难讲述达到涅槃的过程:进人初禅、二禅、三禅和四禅,住于慈、悲、喜和舍,达到空无边、识无边和无所有。八城居士陀萨摩 (Dasama) 听后,说这好像通向宝库的十一个入口,又好像一座住宅有十一扇门,一旦着火,能安全逃出。

53.《有学经》(Sekha sutta)。

佛陀应邀在迦毗罗卫城释迦族新落成的会堂中说法至深夜。佛陀感到背痛,需要休息,请阿难继续说有学法。于是,阿难讲述持戒、守护根门、饮食有节、保持警觉、七正法和四禅。

54.《哺多利经》(Potoliya sutta)。

佛陀讲述断绝俗事八法:不杀生、不偷盗、不妄语、不两舌、不贪婪、不恼恨、不忿怒、不骄慢。佛陀还以七个譬喻(狗啃骨头、兀鹰争肉、火把逆风、推入火坑、梦中乐园、租借荣华和砍倒果树)说明欲乐招致祸患。

55.《看婆迦经》(Jivaka sutta)。

佛陀讲述食肉问题。佛陀指出,比丘如果听到、看到或怀疑这肉是特意为他宰杀的,那就不能食用这肉。否则,便能食用。佛陀也指出,杀生供奉比丘不是善行。

56.《优婆离经》(Upāli sutta)。

尼乾子(耆那教徒)长苦行 (Dighatappasin) 认为身、口、意三业中,身业罪过最大。佛陀向他说明意业罪过最大。长苦行回去报告尼乾陀若提子(Nigaṇṭhanātaputta)。优婆离自告奋勇前来驳斥佛陀的观点,结果反被佛陀说服而皈依佛陀。尼乾陀若提子听说后,来见优波离,优波离为佛陀大唱赞歌,尼乾陀若提子听后,口吐鲜血。

57.《狗行者经》(Kukkuravatika sutta)。

波那 (Puṇṇa) 是模仿牛生活的苦行者;塞尼耶 (Seniya) 是模仿狗生活的裸体苦行者。佛陀警告他俩将来会堕入地狱或转生为畜生。佛陀讲述业有四种:黑业生黑,白业生白,黑白业生黑白,不黑不白业生不黑不白,即业的灭寂。波那和塞尼耶听后,皈依佛陀。

58.《无畏王子经》(Abhayarājakumāra sutta)。

尼乾陀若提子指使无畏王子向佛陀询问一个难题:如来说令人不快的话吗?如果佛陀认可,就问他与普通人有何不同;如果佛陀否认,就问他怎么责骂提婆达多,与提婆达多闹翻?佛陀看见王子抱在怀中的小孩,便问王子:如

果石子或小棍含进小孩嘴中,怎么办?王子说,赶紧把它掏出来,即使出点血也不怕。于是,佛陀说:如果有必要,他也会说令人不快的话。王子听后,佩服佛陀,皈依佛法僧。

59.《多受经》(Bahuvedaniya sutta)。

优陀夷 (Udāyin) 和钵遮甘伽 (Pañcakaṅga) 为受分三种还是两种,争执不一。佛陀告诉阿难说,他按照各种分类说法,受可以有多种分类,不必为此争吵不和。接着,佛陀讲述欲乐有五种:色、声、香、味和触,但这不是至高的幸福。比这更高的幸福是进入四禅,达到空无边、识无边和无所有。

60.《无戏论经》(Āpaṇṇaka sutta)。

佛陀向萨罗村众婆罗门讲述无戏论法。佛陀列举了世上流行的各种互相对立的戏论,最后指出应该成为这样的人:既不折磨自己,也不折磨他人,无欲清凉,幸福快乐。

(二)比丘品 (Bhikkhuvagga)

61.《教诫罗睺罗菴婆罗林经》(Ambalaṭṭhikārāhulovāda sutta)。

佛陀教导罗睺罗戒妄语。他譬喻说,说谎者像泼掉的水那样毫无价值,像奋不顾身的大象那样无恶不作。他告诫罗睺罗要像照镜子那样,经常自我反省,保持身、口、意的纯洁。

62.《教诫罗睺罗大经》(Mahārāhulovāda sutta)。

佛陀向罗睺罗讲述五蕴无常,教导罗睺罗厌弃地、水、火、风和空;不让感觉印象执著于心,犹如地、水、火、风和空对于加在它们身上的任何东西无动于衷;住于慈悲喜舍,作不净观、无常观和入出息念。

63.《摩罗迦小经》(Cūḷamālunkya sutta)。

比丘摩罗迦子要求佛陀解答世界永恒与否、世界无限与否、命与身同一与否和如来死后存在与否这类问题,否则他就要还俗。佛陀劝告他说,解答这些问题无助于达到正觉和涅槃。譬如有一个人被箭射中,医生正准备把毒箭拔出,他却喊道:“等一等,别忙着拔,让我先弄清楚:是谁射的箭?是刹帝利,还是婆罗门?是吠舍,还是首陀罗?他出身哪个家族?长得高还是矮?这支箭是哪一类?哪一种的?”结果会怎么样呢?没等弄清楚这些问题,他就会死去。因此,佛陀说自己要解答的问题是如何通向正觉和涅槃的四谛(苦、集、灭和道)。

64.《摩罗迦大经》(Mahāmāluṅkya sutta)。

佛陀讲述束缚众生的五下分结:有身见、疑惑、戒禁取、欲贪和嗔恚,指出摆脱五下分结的途径。

65.《跋陀利经》(Bhaddali sutta)。

跋陀利不遵守佛陀规定的一坐食(一日一餐)。佛陀向他讲述持戒的必要性,正如一匹马要经过各个阶段的训练,具备了十种品质,才能成为国王的宝马,同样,一个人只有遵行八正道,获得正智和正解脱,才能享有无上福田。

66.《鹑喻经》(Laṭukikopama sutta)。

佛陀讲述有些人像鹌鹑不能摆脱枯朽的蔓藤束缚,而有些人像大象能挣脱牢固的皮带束缚,佛陀教导修习四禅,达到空无边,识无边,无所有,非有想非无想,灭受想,从而摆脱任何束缚。

67.《车头聚落经》(Cātumā sutta)。

舍利弗和目犍连带着五百比丘到车头聚落来见佛陀。佛陀听见众比丘发出喧哗之声,打发他们离去。后来,佛陀向这些比丘说法,告诫他们出家者依然存在四种恐怖:忿怒、贪食、五欲乐和女人,犹如入水者会遇到波浪、鳄鱼、漩涡和鲨鱼。

68.《那罗伽波那村经》(Naḷakapāna sutta) 佛陀告诉众比丘,他宣传自己已经达到漏尽,他的一些信徒已经获得各种成就,并不是哄骗别人,为自己谋取利养、恭敬和名声,而是给青年人树立榜样。

69.《瞿尼师经》(Gulissāni sutta)。

舍利弗讲述林住比丘进入僧团后,应该尊重和关心其他僧众,不侵占他人座位,不过早入村乞食,不骄慢,不嚼舌,守护根门,节制饮食,保持警觉,精进努力,正念正智,学法学律。

70.《积吒山邑经》(Kiṭāgiri sutta)。

积吒山邑的两位比丘不遵行佛陀规定的一坐食。佛陀告诫他们说,他的教导全部依据经验和智慧,他们应该遵行。佛陀讲述了七种人:俱分解脱、慧解脱、身证、见到、信解、随法行和随信行。佛陀勉励他们遵行他的教导,以期获得智慧和不还果。

(三)普行者品 (Paribbājaka vagga)

71.《婆蹉衢多三明经》(Tevijja vacchagotta sutta)。

游方僧婆蹉衢多对佛陀的学问怀有误解。佛陀向他解释自己具有的“三明”不是一般的“三明”(三吠陀),而是宿命智、天眼智和漏尽智。

72.《婆蹉衢多火喻经》(Aggivacchagotta sutta)。

佛陀告诫游方僧婆蹉衢多,思考世界是否永恒、是否无限、命与身是否同一和如来死后是否存在这类问题无助于正觉和涅槃。这正如燃烧的火是可见的,一旦熄灭,谁也说不清消失在何方。因此,唯有如实认识五蕴及其断灭之道,才能达到正觉和涅槃。

73.《婆蹉衢多大经》(Mahāvacchagotta sutta)。

佛陀对游方僧婆蹉衢多讲述善法和不善法。婆蹉衢多皈依佛门后,佛陀又向他讲述止法和观法。最后,婆蹉衢多修成具有大神通的“三明”比丘。

74.《长爪经》(Dighanakha sutta)。

佛陀讲述有些人认为一切于我皆可,有些人认为一切于我皆不可,有些人认为一切于我有可有不可。佛陀要求游方僧长爪不要执著这些观点,陷入争论和烦恼。佛陀向长爪解释身和受的缘起,指明解脱之道。

75.《摩犍提经》( Mogandiya sutta )。

摩犍提说佛陀是“扼杀者”(bhūnahu)。佛陀予以否认,说明他教导的是调伏诸根。他讲述自己年青时享有各种欲乐,后来认识到它们无常,便摒弃一切欲乐,内心平静。他不再贪恋欲乐,犹如麻风病人治愈后,不会留恋麻风病。

76.《逊陀迦经》(Sandaka sutta)。

阿难讲述四种非梵行(不净行)观:一、认为善行恶行无关紧要;二、认为自己做或引起他人做,都不造成恶业;三、或恶或善,没有原因;四、七身(地、水、火、风、乐、苦和命)既不创造,也不被创造,永恒不变。人只有到轮回完毕时,苦才结束。阿难还讲述了四种不能令人满意的梵行:一、自称全知和全见;二、按照传说和典藏说法;三、依据思辨哲学说法;四、思想迟钝和混乱。最后,阿难讲述佛陀所说法。

77.《善生优陀夷大经》(Mahāsakuludāyi sutta)。

游方僧善生优陀夷将佛陀与外道师相比,认为佛陀受弟子尊敬的原因是少食、少欲、知足和隐居等。佛陀告诉他,主要原因是具有无上戒、无上知见和无上智慧,说四谛和四念处以及四正勤、四神足、五根、五力、七觉支、八正道、八解脱、八胜处、十遍处、四禅和六神通。

78.《沙门文祁子经》(Samanamandika sutta)。

游方僧乌伽诃摩那 (Uggahamāna)v 告诉木匠般遮甘伽,成为最上沙门的四种品德是:身不作恶业,口不出恶言,心不怀恶念,不以邪恶方式谋生。而佛陀告诉般遮甘伽,成为最上沙门需要具备十种品德:正见、正思惟、正语、正行、正命、正精进、正念、正定、正智和正解脱。

79.《善生优陀夷小经》(Cūḷasakuludāyi sutta)。

游方僧善生优陀夷认为通过不杀生、不偷盗、不淫欲、不妄语和修苦行能达到极乐(ekantasukha,“一向乐”)世界。佛陀指出善生优陀夷所谓的极乐世界是虚妄之谈,只有修习四禅,获得宿命智、生死智、天眼智、漏尽智和解脱,才是真正的极乐世界。

80.《鞞摩那修经》(Vekhanassa sutta)。

佛陀告诉游方僧鞞摩那修,唯有阿罗汉才真正了解五欲、欲乐和最上欲乐。鞞摩那修感到恼怒。佛陀向他说法,令他信服。

(四)王品 (Rāja Vagga)

81.《陶师经》(Ghaṭkāra sutta)。

佛陀路过一个地方,发出微笑。阿难问他为何微笑?佛陀便讲述自己的一个前生故事:阇帝波罗 (Jotipāla) 和陶师听迦叶佛说法后,阇帝波罗出家成为比丘,而陶师为了侍奉双目失明的年老父母,不能出家。但他极端虔诚,履行居士的一切职责。因此,迦叶佛辞谢迦尸国王的邀请,而到陶师那里度雨安居。佛陀点明阇帝波罗是自己的前生。

82.《赖吒和罗经》(Rāṭṭhapāla sutta)。

赖吒和罗皈依佛陀,出家修行,证得阿罗汉果。后来,他回家看望父母。他的父母出示大量钱财,并让他的诸位妻子盛装打扮,劝他还俗。赖吒和罗毫不动心。拘罗婆那 (Koravya) 国王询问赖吒和罗:你既不衰老,也无疾病,又

不贫穷,也没有失去亲人,为何出家?赖吒和罗便向他宣讲佛陀的教海:世界无常,世界无庇护,世界无所有和世界不知餍足。

83.《大天㮈林经》(Makhādeva Sutta)。

佛陀向阿难讲述自己前生曾为弥底罗国的大天王 (Makhādeva),在享尽人间荣华富贵后,弃世出家,以求得到天国的快乐。此后,子子孙孙都遵循大天王的成规,一旦发现生出第一根白发,便出家入大夭㮈林修行,得以转生梵天界。但是,传到尼弥王的儿子竭那迦王时,他没有这样做,这个传统便中断了。佛陀告诉阿难,他过去创立的那个成规,只是转生梵天界,并不能达到涅槃。只有他现在创立的八正道,才能达到涅槃。因此,佛陀希望阿难不要像竭那迦王那样,让涅槃之道失传。

84.《摩陀罗经》(Madhura sutta)。

大迦旃延向摩陀罗国王阿文堤波多 (Avantiputta) 说明,无论哪个种姓,只要拥有财富,都会受人侍奉;只要作恶,都会堕入地狱;只要出家,都会受人尊敬,因此,四种姓平等,不能说婆罗门是最高种姓。

85.《菩提王子经》(Bodhirājakumāra Sutta)。佛陀告诉菩提王子,凭苦行不能获得幸福。佛陀讲述了自己出家得道的经验。菩提王子询问出家得道需要多长时间,佛陀为他讲述五精勤支。

86.《鸯掘摩经》(Aṅgulimāla sutta)。

强盗鸯掘摩持刀追杀佛陀,而佛陀施展神通,鸯掘摩追赶不上。于是,鸯掘摩皈依佛陀。波斯匿王派兵捉拿强盗鸯掘摩,发现他在佛陀的僧团中,便赞叹佛陀调伏凶贼的能力。鸯掘摩改邪归正,精勤修行。有人向他投掷石头、土块或棍棒,以致他头破血流,衣破钵毁。但佛陀告诉他这是现世业报,必须忍受。最后,鸯掘摩修成阿罗汉。

87.《爱生经》(Piyajātika sutta)。

佛陀劝导一位失去爱子而悲泣的居士,要控制感官和心,一切痛苦和悲哀产生于爱。佛陀也向波斯匿王的王后派来的婆罗门那利鸯伽讲述这个道理。

88.《鞞诃提经》(Bāhitaka sutta)。

阿难向波斯匿王讲述为智者责难和不为智者责难的身、口、意三方面的行为。波斯匿王听后十分高兴,把鞞诃提衣施舍给阿难。

89.《法庄严经》(Dhamma Cetiya Sutta)。

波斯匿王拜访佛陀,盛赞佛法僧。他说在国王、沙门、婆罗门、家主的生活中总是存在冲突和争吵,而比丘们生活在平静和谐之中。波斯匿王还讲到自己和佛陀都是㤭萨罗国的刹帝利,年龄都是八十岁。

90.《普棘刺林经》(Kaṇṇaktthala sutta)。佛陀为波斯匿王解答问题,佛陀否认全知全见,肯定四种姓平等,认为邪恶的梵天仍会再生人间,而仁慈的梵天不会再生人间。

(五)婆罗门品 (Brāhmana vagga)

91.《梵摩经》(Brahmayu sutta)。

婆罗门梵摩得知佛陀具有三十二大人相,亲自前往大天㮈林拜见佛陀。佛陀用神通显示了两个不为常人所见的广长舌相和阴马藏相。然后,又向梵摩解释“牟尼”、“佛陀”的含义以及四圣谛。最后,梵摩皈依佛法僧,成为优婆塞。

92.《赛勒经》(Sela sutta)。

婆罗门赛勒看到佛陀身上有三十二大人相后,皈依佛法僧。此经与《小尼迦耶》中的《经集》第三品第三章《赛勒经》相同。

93.《阿摄和经》(Assalāyana sutta)。

婆罗门青年阿摄和询问佛陀对婆罗门种姓高贵论的看法。佛陀询问阿摄和,刹帝利和婆罗门用好木钻取的火和旃陀罗等用糟木钻取的火有何区别?阿摄和说没有区别。佛陀以此说明一切种姓皆平等。佛陀还说到当时在瑜那和甘蒲阇(Yona-Kamboja) 等地并无四种姓,而只有贵族和奴仆两种种姓。

94.《瞿哆牟伽经》(Gh.otamukha sutta)。

优陀那 (Udena) 长老向婆罗门瞿哆牟伽讲述世上有四种人:一、折磨自己,二、折磨他人,三、折磨自己和他人,四、不折磨自己,也不折磨他人,无欲清净,幸福快乐。

95.《商伽经》(Caṅki Sutta)。

佛陀指出婆罗门自称掌握绝对真理是徒然的。婆罗门传承的真理犹如一队前后互相牵拉的盲人。佛陀讲述应该如何信奉和获得真理。

96.《郁瘦歌逻经》(Esukāri sutta)。

郁瘦歌逻婆罗门认为出身是区别人的唯一标准,所以,婆罗门受四种姓侍奉,刹帝利受三种姓侍奉,吠舍受二种姓侍奉,首陀罗受一种姓侍奉。而佛陀认为任何种姓的人都能行善,这是真正的侍奉;任何种姓的人都能求法,这是正真的财富。

97.《陀然经》(Dhānañjāni sutta)。

舍利弗劝导婆罗门陀然不要放逸,借口供养家庭而作恶,要依法行善,以免堕入地狱。后来,陀然病重。他按照舍利弗的教导,修习四梵住(慈、悲、喜、舍),死后得以再生梵天界。

98.《婆塞特经》(Vāsaṭṭha sutta)。

佛陀讲述怎样的人才是真正的婆罗门。婆罗门并不是由出身决定,而是由品行决定。本经与《小尼迦耶》中的《经集》第三品第九章《婆塞特经》相同。

99.《须婆经》(Subha sutta)。

佛陀向婆罗门青年须婆说法,指出修习四梵住(慈、悲、喜、舍),能再生梵天界,与梵天共住。

100 .《伤歌逻经》(Sangārava sutta)。

女婆罗门陀那奢尼 (Dhānañjāni) 赞叹佛陀。婆罗门青年伤歌逻指责陀那奢尼,作为婆罗门不应该称颂削发的出家人。后来,伤歌逻见到佛陀,听了佛陀说法后,也皈依佛陀。


《后分五十经编》(Uparipapṇṇāsam )

(一)天臂品 (Devadaha vagga)

101.《夭臂经》(Devadaha sutta)。

佛陀批驳尼乾子(耆那教)的“依苦行灭一切苦”的观点。尼乾子认为人的任何经验——苦、乐、不苦不乐,都源自前生之业。所以,通过苦行,排除旧业,不作新业,就能灭除一切苦。

102.《五三经》(Pañcattaya sutta)。

佛陀讲述沙门婆罗门关于未来的各种观点:一、死后我(灵魂)有想,二、死后我无想,三、死后我非有想非无想,四、死后断灭,五、现世涅槃。前三类又能统称为“死后有我”。这样,五类又可说成三类。因此,经名为 《五三经》 。而佛陀是超越这些观点的。

103.《如何经》(Kimti Sutta)。

佛陀教导众比丘要努力修习四念处、四正勤、四神足、五根、五力、七觉支和八正道,和睦相处,不要争吵。如果出现分歧,要妥善处理。

104.《舍弥村经》(Sāmagāma sutta)。

尼乾陀若提子去世后,弟子们分成两派,互相争论。阿难将这消息告诉佛陀,担心佛陀去世后,僧团也会发生分裂。佛陀便讲述六诤根、四诤事、七灭诤和六调停法。

105.《善星经》(Sunakkhatta sutta)。

离车族善星询问有关比丘自认所证的问题。佛陀解释说,有的比丘注重世俗利益,有的比丘摆脱世俗束缚,有的比丘注重禅定,有的比丘注重涅槃。佛陀又以譬喻说明,医生拔出毒箭后,病人还只能缓慢行动,直至伤口痊愈。贪欲是箭,六根是伤口,无知是毒,念处是医生的诊视,正智是医生的手术刀,如来是医生。

106.《不动利益经》(Aṇañjasappāya sutta)。

佛陀讲述依不动利益行道,铲除由欲望产生的种种障碍,达到心的宁静和不动,然后超越无所有处想和非想非非想,达到无取著的涅槃和无取著的心解脱。

107.《算数家目犍连经》(Gaṇakamoggallana sutta)。

佛陀讲述比丘修行也像世间诸事和婆罗门修行那样是循序渐进的。比丘修行的顺序为:一、持戒,二、守护六根,三、饮食有节,四、保持警觉,五、持念正知,六、独坐修行,七、排除五盖,八、修习四禅。佛陀说他已经指明通向涅槃之道,但能否达到涅槃,全靠比丘自己。

108.《瞿默目犍连经》(Gopakamoggallāna sutta)。

阿难讲述佛陀去世后,没有一个比丘具足佛陀的品质和教海,僧团没有推举出众比丘皈依的对象,而是以法为师,依法治教。佛法是比丘行为的准则,也是僧团和睦的依据。阿难列举了十种可喜法:受持学戒、广学多闻、少欲知足、精通四禅、神足通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、天眼通和漏尽通。

109.《满月大经》(Mahāpaṇṇama sutta)。

佛陀解释五取蕴和有身见,指出通过认识诸蕴无我而达到解脱。

110.《满月小经》(Cūḷapaṇṇama sutta)。

佛陀讲述怎样依据人的思想、言语和行为识别恶人和善人。

(二)不断品 (Anupada vagga)

111.《不断经》(Anupada sutta)。

佛陀称赞舍利弗学问渊博,智慧深邃,能观“不断的法观”,依次完成戒定慧,达到解脱。佛陀说舍利弗是法的继承人,能继续转动无上法轮。

112.《六净经》(Chabbisodhana sutta)。

佛陀讲述对自称获得解脱的人既不要赞颂,也不要指责,而是要提出问题,进行考察,断定真伪。考察的问题包括四说、五取蕴、六界、十二处、去我见以及出家动机和修道过程。

113.《善士经》(Sappurisa sutta)。

佛陀讲述以自己的出身、名声、利养、多闻、持律、说法、头陀(苦行)和禅定为荣耀,自赞毁他,不是善士法。

114.《应习不应习经》(Sevitahba-asevitabb sutta)。

佛陀提出在身、口和意等方面应该修习和不应该修习的行为。舍利弗予以详细解释,得到佛陀赞许。

115.《多界经》(Bahudhātuka sutta)。

佛陀讲述智者没有恐惧、麻烦和不幸。而作为智者,必须精通十八界、三界、二界、六内外处、十二缘起和处非处(合理性和不合理性)。

116.《仙吞山经》(Isigili sutta)。仙吞山是摩揭陀国王舍城周围的五座山之一。佛陀讲述过去曾有五百辟支佛在此山居住,达到涅槃,并列举了一些辟支佛的名字。

117.《大四十经》(Mahā cattarisakā sutta)。

佛陀讲述正定以正见为前提。正定有十法,即八正道、正智和正解脱。前七正道是正定的方法,正智和正解脱是正定的结果。

118.《入出息念经》(Ānāpanasati sutta)。

佛陀讲述修习入出息念,可以达到四念处,进而达到七觉支和明解脱。

119.《身行念经》(Kāyagatāsati sutta)。

佛陀讲述身念处的修习法和功德。身念处的修习法主要是对身体作不净观。

120.《行生经》(Samkhāruppatti Sutta)。

佛陀讲述比丘具足信、戒、闻、施和慧,便能依随自己的意愿,来世转生刹帝利或婆罗门,或再生天国,或达到涅槃。

(三)空品 (Suññata vagga)

121.《空小经》(Cūḷa suññata sutta)。

佛陀讲述人的烦恼是由想引起,要消除烦恼,便应消除各种想,诸如村庄想、人想、树林想、地想、四无色处想(无限空想、无限意识想、一无所有想、非想非非想)和六处身想等。如能将欲漏、有漏和无明漏化为空无,便能获得真正的解脱。

122.《空大经》(Mahāsuññata Sutta)。

佛陀讲述比丘应该乐于独住远离之处,潜心空无,进入四禅,身口意纯洁,摒弃五欲。比丘追随导师,并不是为了听取对经文的解释,而是为了求得正觉和涅槃。

123.《未曾有法经》(Acchariyabhutadhamma Sutta)。

阿难讲述佛陀由兜率夭进入母胎而降生人间的种种奇迹。佛陀诞生后,双脚站立,面朝北方,行走七步,环视各方,说道:“我是世上最杰出者,我是世上最优秀者,我是世上最年长者。这是我的最后一生,不会再有转生。”

124.《薄拘罗经》(Bakkula Sutta)。

薄拘罗告诉朋友阿支罗迦叶 (Acelakassapa) 自己在八十年的比丘生涯中,没有犯过任何过错,始终过着纯洁的生活。阿支罗迦叶听后,也出家修行。

125.《调御地经》(Dantabhūmi sutta)。

佛陀讲述沉迷于欲乐的人无法修行,正如沉迷于树林的野象无法调御。驯象师首先要把野象带离树林,然后才能用各种方法驯服它。同样,对人的调伏也应该首先让他出家,摒弃在家生活的欲念,然后,才能循序渐进,精勤修行。

126.《浮弥经》(Bhūmija sutta)。

佛陀讲述要获得修行的功果,首先要有正见。缺乏正见,犹如榨沙取油,挤牛角取乳,凝水取酷,钻湿木取火。

127.《阿那律经》(Anuruddha sutta)。

阿那律向木匠般遮甘伽解释大心解脱和无量心解脱。大心解脱是以大心充满一树、两树乃至整个大地。无量心解脱是以慈心充满一方、两方乃至整个世界。

128.《随烦恼经》(Upakkilesa sutta)。

佛陀想调停㤭赏弥地区比丘们的争论。但比丘们说由他们自己解决。然后,佛陀到阿那律、难提耶和金毗罗三人修行的树林,向他们讲述排除烦恼的三昧修习法。

129.《贤愚经》(Bālapaṇḍita sutta)。

佛陀讲述愚者死后堕入地狱或畜生道,贤者死后升入天国。愚者在地狱中将受到各种酷刑惩处,而贤者在天国则享受连人间转轮王也无法比拟的快乐。

130.《天使经》(Devaduta sutta)。

佛陀讲述行善者升入天国,作恶者堕入地狱。每个堕人地狱的人,先由阎摩王询问他有没有见到过五天使:生、老、病、刑罚和死,然后,由狱卒带入种种地狱,接受惩处。

(四)分别品 (Vibhaṅga vagga)

131.《一夜贤者经》(Bhaddekaratta sutta)。

佛陀为众比丘作“一夜贤者”偈,强调不要留恋过去,不要想未来,而要把握现在当下,精勤努力。

132.《阿难一夜贤者经》(Ānandabha ddekaratta sutta)。

阿难向众比丘讲述一夜贤者偈的由来。佛陀又为阿难解释此偈。

133.《大迦旃延一夜贤者经》(Mahākaccana bhaddekaratta sutta)。

一位天神向比丘三弥提 (Samiddhi) 询问一夜贤者偈。三弥提请教佛陀,佛陀说出此偈。大迦旃延为众比丘解释此偈。佛陀对他的解释表示赞赏。

134.《卢夷强耆一夜贤者经》(Lomasakaṅgiyabhaddekaratta sutta)。

天神旃檀 (Candana) 向比丘卢夷强耆询问一夜贤者偈。卢夷强耆者请教佛陀,佛陀为他解释此偈。

135.《小业分别经》(Cūḷakammavibhaṅga sutta)。

婆罗门青年苏巴 (Subha Todeyyaputta) 询问佛陀为何世人有长寿有短命,有多病有少病,有美有丑,有富有穷,有贵有贱,有智有愚?佛陀解释这一切都由前生的业决定。业属子自己。众生是业的继承人。业是子宫,业是亲属,业是仲裁。

136.《大业分别经》(Mahākammavibhaṅga Sutta)。

佛陀讲述善业有善报,但也有受苦的情况;恶业有恶报,但也有得乐的情况,因为善恶的业报可能出现在现世、来生或别的时间。

137.《六处分别经》(Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀讲述六内处、六外处、六识身、六触身、十八意行、三十六有情句、三念住和无上调御士。

138.《总说分别经》(Uddesa vibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀讲述比丘在观察时,外识不分散,内识不松懈,不受取著干扰,将来就不会有生、老、死和苦。大迦旃延对此作出详细解释。

139 .《无净分别经》(Araṇavibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀讲述既不要追求欲乐,也不要折磨自己,而应该遵行中道(即八正道),达到正觉和涅槃。佛陀还讲述不要说秘密话 (rahovāda),不要说令人难堪的话,说话要慢不要急,不要偏爱方言俚语,不要违背通用术语。

140.《界分别经》(Dhātuvibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀在陶师家住宿,为热心求道的出家青年波古沙底 (Pakkusati) 解说六界。波古沙底听后,请求佛陀授具足戒。佛陀告诉他,无衣钵者不能受具足戒。于是,波古沙底出外寻找衣钵,不幸途中被牛撞死.佛陀告诉众比丘,波古沙底已摆脱五下分结而达到涅槃。

141.《谛分别经》(Saccavibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀讲述四圣谛并称赞舍利弗和目犍连。然后,舍利弗为众比丘详细解说四圣谛。

142.《施分别经》(Dakkināvibhaṅga Sutta)。

佛陀姨母摩诃波阇波提将亲手织成的新衣献给佛陀,佛陀劝她施舍给僧团。由此,佛陀讲述十四种施舍对象,上至佛陀,下至畜生类。进而讲述七种对僧团的施舍,并认为此类施舍比前十四种施舍,功德更大。

(五)六处品 (Saḷyatanavagga )

143.《教给孤独经》(Anāthapiṇḍikovāda sutta)。

给孤独长者病危时,舍利弗在阿难陪同下为他说法,勉励他不要执著六根、六境、六识、六触、六受、六界、五蕴和四无色处。给孤独长者死后升入兜率天。

144.《教阐陀经》(Channovāda sutta)。

比丘阐陀得了重病,舍利弗和大周那前去探望,发现他想自杀。他们劝他不要自杀,与他讨论六根六识无我,无执著便无苦。后来,阐陀还是自杀了。舍利弗把这个消息告诉佛陀。佛陀认为如果为了再生而自杀,应该受到责备,但阐陀不是这种情况。

145.《教富楼那经》(Puṇṇovāda sutta)。

佛陀教导比丘富楼那:不执著六境,便不会有烦恼。佛陀听说富楼那准备前往输那国 (Sunāparonta),便告诉他那里的人强悍凶暴。富楼那说不管遇到什么伤害,他都会以善待人。后来,富楼那果然在那里获得五百信徒。

146.《教难陀迦经》(Nandakovāda sutta)。

难陀迦向众比丘尼宣讲六根、六境、六识是苦,无常,无我,教导她们修习七觉支,求得解脱。佛陀见众比丘尼听法后,还没达到成熟。第二夭,难陀迦遵照佛陀的吩咐,又对众比丘尼重说一次。然后,佛陀说这五百比丘尼中,

最低者也能得预流果。

147.《教罗眠罗小经》(Cūḷarahulovāda sutta)。

佛陀向罗睺罗讲述一切感官享受瞬息即逝,认识了一切无常,便会厌离各种感官享受,由此达到解脱。罗睺罗听从佛陀教海,达到漏尽解脱。

148.《六六经》(Chāchakka sutta)。

佛陀讲述六六法门:六根、六境、六识、六触、六受和六爱。佛陀教导众比丘不要执著这些为我,而要予以摒弃。

149.《大六处经》(Mahāsaḷāyatanika sutta)。

佛陀讲述要如实理解六根、六境、六识、六触、六受都是瞬息即逝的。贪恋执著这些,便会产生身心烦恼。如实理解这些,便能遵行八正道,达到明解脱。

150.《频头城经》(Nagaravindeyya sutta)。

佛陀讲述应该尊敬这样的沙门婆罗门:摒弃贪嗔痴,内心平静,一视同仁。

151.《乞食清净经》(Piṇḍdapātapārisuddhi sutta)。

佛陀讲述比丘乞食应该注意的事项。在乞食时,要保持自我反省,摒弃恶念,增强善念。

152.《根修习经》(Indriyabhāvanā sutta)。

婆罗门青年郁多罗讲述自己老师的根修习法:“眼不见色,耳不闻声”。佛陀告诉他说,若是这样,盲人和聋人则是最好的根修习者了。然后,佛陀宣讲“根修习法”,即对一切所见所闻漠然处之,住于舍,平静,警觉,清醒。


A Summary of the 152 Suttas

By Bodhi Bhikkhu

PART one : THE ROOT FIFTY DISCOURSES

1 Mulapariyaya Sutta: The Root of All Things. The Buddha analyses the cognitive processes of four types of individuals – the untaught ordinary person, the disciple in higher training, the arahant, and the Tathagata. This is one of the deepest and most difficult suttas in the Pali Canon, and it is therefore suggested that the earnest student read it only in a cursory manner on a first reading of the Majjhima Nikaya, returning to it for an in-depth study after completing the entire collection.

2 Sabbasava Sutta: All the Taints. The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for restraining and abandoningthe taints, the fundamental defilements that maintain bondage to the round of birth and death.

3 Dhammadayada Sutta: Heirs in Dhamma’. The Buddha enjoins the bhikkhus to be heirs in Dhamma, not heirs in material things. The venerable Sariputta then continues on the same theme by explaining how disciples should train themselves to become the Buddha’s heirs in Dhamma.

4 Bhayabherava Sutta: Fear and Dread. The Buddha describes to a brahmin the qualities required of a monk who wishes to live alone in the forest. He then relates an account of his own attempts to conquer fear when striving for enlightenment.

5 Anangana Sutta: Without Blemishes. The venerable Sariputta gives a discourse to the bhikkhus on the meaning of blemishes, explaining that a bhikkhu becomes blemished when he falls under the sway of evil wishes.

6 Akankheyya Sutta: If a Bhikkhu Should Wish. The Buddha begins by stressing the importance of virtue as the foundation for a bhikkhu’s training; he then goes on to enumerate the benefits that a bhikkhu can reap by properly fulfilling the training.

7 Vatthupama Sutta: The Simile of the Cloth. With a simple simile the Buddha illustrates the difference between a defiled mind and a pure mind.

8 Sallekha Sutta: Effacement. The Buddha rejects the view that the mere attainment of the meditative absorptions is effacement and explains how ffacement is properly practised in his teaching.

9 Sammaditthi Sutta: Right View. A long and important discourse by the venerable Sariputta, with separate sections on the wholesome and the unwholesome, nutriment, the Four Noble Truths, the twelve factors of dependent origination, and the taints.

10 Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness. This is one of the fullest and most important suttas by the Buddha dealing with meditation, with particular emphasis on the development of insight. The Buddha begins by declaring the four foundations of mindfulness to be the direct path for the realisation of Nibbana, then gives detailed instructions on the four foundations: the contemplation of the body, feelings, mind, and mind-objects.

11 Culasihanada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. The Buddha declares that only in his Dispensation can the four grades of noble individuals be found, explaining how his teaching can be distinguished from other creeds through its unique rejection of all doctrines of self.

12 MahasThanada Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. The Buddha expounds the ten powers of a Tathagata, his four kinds of intrepidity, and other superior qualities, which entitle him to “roar his lion’s roar in the assemblies.”

13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering. The Buddha explains the full understanding of sensual pleasures, material form, and feelings; there is a long section on the dangers in sensual pleasures.

14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering. A variation on the preceding, ending in a discussion with Jain ascetics on the nature of pleasure and pain.

15 Anumana Sutta: Inference. The venerable Maha Moggallana enumerates the qualities that make a bhikkhu difficult to admonish and teaches how one should examine oneself to remove the defects in one’s character.

16 Cetokhila Sutta: The Wilderness in the Heart. The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus the five “wildernesses in the heart” and the five “shackles in the heart.”

17 Vanapattha Sutta: Jungle Thickets. A discourse on the conditions under which a meditative monk should remain living in a jungle thicket and the conditions under which he should go elsewhere.

18 Madhupindika Sutta: The Honey Ball. The Buddha utters a deep but enigmatic statement about “the source through which perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man.” This statement is elucidated by the venerable Maha Kaccana, whose explanation is praised by the Buddha.

19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Kinds of Thought. With reference to his own struggle for enlightenment, the Buddha explains the way to overcome unwholesome thoughts and replace them by wholesome thoughts.

20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta: The Removal of Distracting Thoughts. The Buddha teaches five methods for dealing with the unwholesome thoughts that may arise in the course of meditation.

21 Kakacupama Sutta: The Simile of the Saw. A discourse on the need to maintain patience when addressed with disagreeable words.

22 Alagaddupama Sutta: The Simile of the Snake. A bhikkhu named Arittha gives rise to a pernicious view that conduct prohibited by the Buddha is not really an obstruction. The Buddha reprimands him and, with a series of memorable similes, stresses the dangers in misapplying and misrepresenting the Dhamma. The sutta culminates in one of the most impressive disquisitions on non-self found in the Canon.

23 Vammika Sutta: The Ant-hill. A deity presents a monk with an obscure riddle, which is unravelled for him by the Buddha.

24 RathavinTta Sutta: The Relay Chariots. The venerable Punna Mantaniputta explains to Sariputta that the goal of the holy life, final Nibbana, is to be reached by way of the seven stages of purification.

25 Nivapa Sutta: The Bait. The Buddha uses the analogy of deer-trappers to make known to the bhikkhus the obstacles that confront them in their effort to escape from Mara’s control.

26 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Search. The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a long account of his own quest for enlightenment from the time of his life in the palace up to his transmission of the Dhamma to his first five disciples.

27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint. Using the analogy of a woodsman tracking down a big bull elephant, the Buddha explains how a disciple arrives at complete certainty of the truth of his teaching. The sutta presents a full account of the step-by-step training of the Buddhist monk.

28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint. The venerable Sariputta begins with a statement of the Four Noble Truths, which he then expounds byway of the contemplation of the four elements and the dependent origination of the five aggregates.

29 Mahasaropama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood.

30 Culasaropama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood. These two discourses emphasise that the proper goal of the holy life is the unshakeable deliverance of the mind, to which all other benefits are subsidiary.

31 Culagosinga Sutta: The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga. The Buddha meets three bhikkhus who are living in concord, “blending like milk and water,” and inquires how they succeed in living together so harmoniously.

32 Mahagosinga Sutta: The Greater Discourse in Gosinga. On a beautiful moonlit night a number of senior disciples meet together in a sala-tree wood and discuss what kind of bhikkhu could illuminate the wood. After each has answered according to his personal ideal, they go to the Buddha, who provides his own answer.

33 Mahagopalaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd. The Buddha teaches eleven qualities that prevent a bhikkhu’s growth in the Dhamma and eleven qualities that contribute to his growth.

34 Culagopalaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd. The Buddha explains the types of bhikkhus who “breast Mara’s stream” and get safely across to the further shore.

35 Culasaccaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka. The debater Saccaka boasts that in debate he can shake the Buddha up and down and thump him about, but when he finally meets the Buddha their discussion takes some unexpected turns.

36 Mahasaccaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Saccaka. The Buddha meets again with Saccaka and in the course of a discussion on “development of body” and “development of mind” he relates a detailed narrative on his own spiritual quest.

37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving. The venerable Maha Moggallana overhears the Buddha give a brief explanation to Sakka, ruler of gods, as to how a bhikkhu is liberated through the destruction of craving. Wishing to know if Sakka understood the meaning, he makes a trip to the heaven of the Thirty-three to find out.

38 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving. A bhikkhu named Sati promulgates the pernicious view that the same consciousness transmigrates from life to life. The Buddha reprimands him with a lengthy discourse on dependent origination, showing how all phenomena of existence arise and cease through conditions.

39 Maha-Assapura Sutta: The Greater Discourse at Assapura. The Buddha elucidates “the things that make one a recluse” with a discourse covering many aspects of the bhikkhu’s training.

40 Cula-Assapura Sutta: The Shorter Discourse at Assapura. The Buddha explains “the way proper tolthe recluse” to be not the mere outward practice of austerities but the inward purification from defilements.

41 Saleyyaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Sala.

42 Veranjaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Veranja. In these two nearly identical suttas the Buddha explains to groups of brahmin householders the courses of conduct leading to rebirth in lower realms and the courses leading to higher rebirth and deliverance.]

43 Mahavedalla Sutta: The Greater Series of Questions and Answers.

44 Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers. These two discourses take the form of discussions on various subtle points of Dhamma, the former between the venerable Maha Kotthita and the venerable Sariputta, the latter between the bhikkhuni Dhammadirma and the lay follower Visakha.

45 Cttladhammasamadana Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things.

46 Mahadhamtnasamadana Sutta: The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things. The Buddha explains, differently in each of the two suttas,
four ways of undertaking things, distinguished according to whether they are painful or pleasant now and whether they ripen in pain or pleasure in the future.

47 Vlmarhsaka Sutta: The Inquirer. The Buddha invites the bhikkhus to make a thorough investigation of himself in order to find out whether or not he can be accepted as fully enlightened.

48 Kosambiya Sutta: The Kosambians. During the period when the bhikkhus at Kosambi are divided by a dispute, the Buddha teaches them the six qualities that create love and respect and conduce to unity. He then explains seven extraordinary knowledges possessed by a noble disciple who has realised the fruit of stream-entry.

49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta: The Invitation of a Brahma. Baka the Brahma, a high divinity, adopts the pernicious view that the heavenly world over which he presides is eternal and that there is no higher state beyond. The Buddha visits him to dissuade him from that wrong view and engages him in a contest of Olympian dimensions.

50 Maratajjaruya Sutta: The Rebuke to Mara. Mara attempts to harass the venerable Maha Moggallana, but the latter relates a story of the distant past to warn Mara of the dangers in creating trouble for a disciple of the Buddha.

PART TWO: THE MIDDLE FIFTY DISCOURSES

51 Kandaraka Sutta: To Kandaraka. The Buddha discusses four kinds of persons found in the world – the one who torments himself, the one who torments others, the one who torments both himself and others, and the one who torments neither but lives a truly holy life.

52 Atthakanagara Sutta: The man from Atthakanagara. The venerable Ananda teaches eleven “doors to the Deathless” by which a bhikkhu can attain the supreme security from bondage.

53 Sekha Sutta: The Disciple in Higher Training. At the Buddha’s request the venerable Ananda gives a discourse on the practices undertaken by a disciple in higher training.

54 Potaliya Sutta: To Potaliya. The Buddha teaches a presumptuous interlocutor the meaning of “the cutting off of affairs” in his discipline. The sutta offers a striking series of similes on the dangers in sensual pleasures.

55 Jtvaka Sutta: To Jxvaka. The Buddha explains the regulations he has laid down concerning meat-eating and defends his disciples against unjust accusations.

56 Upali Sutta: To Upali. The wealthy and influential householder Upali, a prominent supporter of the Jains, proposes to go to the Buddha and refute his doctrine. Instead, he finds himself converted by the Buddha’s “converting magic.”

57 Kukkuravatika Sutta: The Dog-Duty Ascetic. The Buddha meets two ascetics, one who imitates the behaviour of a dog, the other who imitates the behaviour of an ox. He reveals to them the futility of their practices and gives them a discourse on kamma and its fruit.

58 Abhayarajakumara Sutta: To Prince Abhaya. The Jain leader, Nigantha Nataputta, teaches Prince Abhaya a “twohorned question” with which’ he can refute the Buddha’s doctrine. The Buddha escapes the dilemma and explains what kind of speech he would and would not utter.

59 Bahuvedaniya Sutta: The Many Kinds of Feeling. After resolving a disagreement about the classification of feelings, the Buddha enumerates the different kinds of pleasure and joy that beings can experience.

60 Apannaka Sutta: The Incontrovertible Teaching. The Buddha gives a group of brahmin householders an “incontrovertible teaching” that will help them steer clear of the tangle in contentious views.

61 Ambalatthikarahulovada Sutta: Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika. The Buddha admonishes his son, the novice Rahula, on the dangers in lying and stresses the importance of constant reflection on one’s motives.

62 Maharahulovada Sutta: The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula. The Buddha teaches Rahula the meditation on the elements, on mindfulness of breathing, and other topics.

63 Ctllamalunkya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta. A bhikkhu threatens to leave the Order unless the Buddha answers his metaphysical questions. With the simile of the man struck by a poisoned arrow, the Buddha makes plain exactly what he does and does not teach.

64 Mahamalunkya Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta. The Buddha teaches the path to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.

65 Bhaddali Sutta: To Bhaddali. The Buddha admonishes a recalcitrant monk and explains the disadvantages of refusing to submit to the training.

66 Latukikopama Sutta: The Simile of the Quail. The Buddha drives home the importance of abandoning all fetters, no matter how harmless and trifling they may seem.

67 Catuma Sutta: At Catuma. The Buddha teaches a group of newly ordained monks four dangers to be overcome by those who have gone forth into homelessness.

68 Nalakapana Sutta: At Nalakapana. The Buddha explains why, when his disciples die, he declares their level of attainment and plane of rebirth.

69 Gulissani Sutta: Gulissani. The venerable Sariputta gives a discourse on the proper training of a forest-dwelling bhikkhu.

70 Kitagiri Sutta: At Kltagiri. The Buddha admonishes a group of disobedient monks, in the course of which he presents an important sevenfold classification of noble disciples.

71 Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on the Threefold True Knowledge. The Buddha denies possessing complete knowledge of everything at all times and defines the threefold knowledge he does possess.

72 Aggivacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire. The Buddha explains to a wanderer why he does not hold any speculative views. With the simile of an extinguished fire he tries to indicate the destiny of the liberated being.

73 Mahavacchagotta Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Vacchagotta. The story of the wanderer Vacchagotta’s full conversion to the Dhamma, his going forth, and his attainment of arahantship.

74 Dtghanakha Sutta: To Dlghanakha. The Buddha counters the disclaimers of a sceptic and teaches him the way to liberation through the contemplation of feelings.

75 Magandiya Sutta: To Magandiya. The Buddha meets the hedonist philosopher Magandiya and points out to him the dangers in sensual pleasures, the benefits of renunciation, and the meaning of Nibbana.

76 Sandaka Sutta: To Sandaka. The venerable Ananda teaches a group of wanderers four ways that negate the living of the holy life and four kinds of holy life without consolation. Then he explains the holy life that is truly fruitful.

77 Mahasakuludayi Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Sakuludayin. The Buddha teaches a group of wanderers the reasons why his disciples venerate him and look to him for guidance.

78 Samanamandika Sutta: Samanamandikaputta. The Buddha explains how a man is “one who has attained to the supreme attainment.”

79 Culasakuludayi Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Sakuludayin. The Buddha examines the doctrine of a wandering ascetic, using the simile of “the most beautiful girl in the country” to expose the folly of his claims.

80 Vekhanassa Sutta: To Vekhanassa. A discourse partly similar to the preceding one, with an additional section on sensual pleasure.

81 Ghatikara Sutta: Ghatikara the Potter. The Buddha recounts the story of the chief lay supporter of the past Buddha Kassapa.

82 Ratthapala Sutta: On Ratthapala. The story of a young man who goes forth into homelessness against the wishes of his parents and later returns to visit them.

83 Makhadeva Sutta: King Makhadeva. The story of an ancient lineage of kings and how their virtuous tradition was broken due to negligence.

84 Madhura Sutta: At Madhura. The venerable Maha Kaccana examines the brahmin claim that brahmins are the highest caste.

85 Bodhirajakumara Sutta: To Prince Bodhi. The Buddha counters the claim that pleasure is to be gained through pain with an account of his own quest for enlightenment.

86 Angulimala Sutta: On Angulimala. The story of how the Buddha subdued the notorious criminal Angulimala and led him to the attainment of arahantship.

87 Piyajatika Sutta: Born from Those Who Are Dear. Why the Buddha teaches that sorrow and grief arise from those who are dear.

88 Bahitika Sutta: The Cloak. The venerable Ananda answers King Pasenadi’s questions on the Buddha’s behaviour.

89 Dhammacetiya Sutta: Monuments to the Dhamma. King Pasenadi offers ten reasons why he shows such deep veneration to the Buddha.

90 Kannakatthala Sutta: At Kannakatthala. King Pasenadi questions the Buddha on omniscience, on caste distinctions, and on the gods.

91 Brahmayu Sutta: Brahmayu. An old and erudite brahmin learns about the Buddha, goes to meet him, and becomes his disciple.

92 Sela Sutta: To Sela. The brahmin Sela questions the Buddha, gains faith in him, and becomes a monk along with his company of pupils.

93 Assalayana Sutta: To Assalayana. A young brahmin approaches the Buddha to argue the thesis that the brahmins are the highest caste.

94 Ghotamukha Sutta: To Ghotamukha. A discussion between a brahmin and a bhikkhu on whether the renunciate life accords with the Dhamma.

95 Canki Sutta: With Canki. The Buddha instructs a young brahmin on the preservation of truth, the discovery of truth, and the final arrival at truth.

96 Esukari Sutta: To Esukarl. The Buddha and a brahmin discuss the brahmins’ claim to superiority over the other castes.

97 Dhananjani Sutta: To Dhananjani. The venerable Sariputta admonishes a brahmin who tries to excuse his negligence by appeal to his many duties. Later, when he is close to death, Sariputta guides him to rebirth in the Brahma-world but is reprimanded by the Buddha for having done so.

98 Vasettha Sutta: To Vasettha. The Buddha resolves a dispute between two young brahmins on the qualities of a true brahmin.

99 Subha Sutta: To Subha. The Buddha answers a young brahmin’s questions and teaches him the way to rebirth in the Brahma-world.

100 Sangarava Sutta: To Sangarava. A brahmin student questions the Buddha about the basis on which he teaches the fundamentals of the holy life.

PART THREE: THE FINAL FIFTY DISCOURSES

101 Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha. The Buddha examines the Jain thesis that liberation is to be attained by self-mortification, proposing a different account of how striving becomes fruitful.

102 Paficattaya Sutta: The Five and Three. A survey of various speculative views about the future and the past and of misconceptions about Nibbana.

103 Kinti Sutta: What Do You Think About Me? The Buddha explains how the monks can resolve disagreements about the Dhamma.

104 Samagama Sutta: At Samagama. The Buddha lays down disciplinary procedures for the guidance of the Sangha to ensure its harmonious functioning after his demise.

105 Sunakkhatta Sutta: To Sunakkhatta. The Buddha discusses the problem of an individual’s overestimation of his progress in meditation.

106 Anenjasappaya Sutta: The Way to the Imperturbable. The Buddha explains the approaches to various levels of higher meditative states culminating in Nibbana.

107 Ganakamoggallana Sutta: To Ganaka Moggallana. The Buddha sets forth the gradual training of the Buddhist monk and describes himself as the “shower of the way.”

108 Gopakamoggallana Sutta: With Gopaka Moggallana. The venerable Ananda explains how the Sangha maintains its unity and internal discipline after the passing away of the Buddha.

109 Mahapunnama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Fullmoon Night. A bhikkhu questions the Buddha on the five aggregates, clinging, personality view, and the realisation of non-self.

110 Culapunnama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Fullmoon Night. The Buddha explains the differences between an “untrue man” and a “true man.”
111 Anupada Sutta: One by One As They Occurred. The Buddha describes the venerable Sariputta’s development of insight when he was training for the attainment of arahantship.

112 Chabbisodhana Sutta: The Sixfold Purity. The Buddha explains how a bhikkhu should be interrogated when he claims final knowledge and how he would answer if his claim is genuine.

113 Sappurisa Sutta: The True Man. The Buddha distinguishes the character of a true man from that of an untrue man.

114 Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta: To Be Cultivated and Not To Be Cultivated. The Buddha sets up three brief outlines of things to be cultivated and not to be cultivated, and the venerable Sariputta fills in the details.

115 Bahudhatuka Sutta: The Many Kinds of Elements. The Buddha expounds in detail the elements, the sense bases, dependent origination, and the kinds of situations that are possible and impossible in the world.

116 Isigili Sutta: Isigili: The Gullet of the Seers. An enumeration of the names and epithets of paccekabuddhas who formerly dwelt on the mountain Isigili.

117 Mahcicattarisaka Sutta: The Great Forty. The Buddha defines the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path and explains their inter-relationships.

118 Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing. An exposition of sixteen steps in mindfulness of breathing and of the relation of this meditation to the four foundations of mindfulness and the seven enlightenment factors.

119 Kayagatasati Sutta: Mindfulness of the Body. The Buddha explains how mindfulness of the body should be developed and cultivated and the benefits to which it leads.

120 Sankharupapatti Sutta\ Reappearance by Aspiration. The Buddha teaches how one can be reborn in accordance with one’s wish.

121 Culasunnata Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on Voidness. The Buddha instructs Ananda on the “genuine, undistorted, pure descent into voidness.”

122 Mahasunhata Sutta: The Greater Discourse on Voidness. Upon finding that the bhikkhus have grown fond of socialising, the Buddha stresses the need for seclusion in order to abide in voidness.

123 Acchariya-abbhUta Sutta: Wonderful and Marvellous. At a gathering of bhikkhus the venerable Ananda recounts the wonderful and marvellous events that preceded and attended the birth of the Buddha.

124 Bakkula Sutta: Bakkula. The elder disciple Bakkula enumerates his austere practices during his eighty years in the Sangha and exhibits a remarkable death.

125 Dantabhumi Sutta: The Grade of the Tamed. By analogy with the taming of an elephant, the Buddha explains how he tames his disciples.

126 Bhumija Sutta: Bhumija. The Buddha brings forward a series of similes to illustrate the natural fruitfulness of the Noble Eightfold Path.

127 Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha. The venerable Anuruddha clarifies the difference between the immeasurable deliverance of mind and the exalted deliverance of mind.

128 Upakkilesa Sutta: Imperfections. The Buddha discusses the various impediments to meditative progress he encountered during his quest for enlightenment, with particular reference to the divine eye.

129 Balapandita Sutta: Fools and Wise Men. The sufferings of hell and animal life into which a fool is reborn through his evil deeds, and the pleasures of heaven that a wise man reaps through his good deeds.

130 Devaduta Sutta: The Divine Messengers. The Buddha describes the sufferings of hell thaj£ await the evil-doer after death.

131 Bhaddekaratta Sutta: One Fortunate Attachment.

132 Anandabhaddekaratta Sutta: Ananda and One Fortunate Attachment.

133 Mahakaccanabhaddekaratta Sutta: Maha Kaccana and One Fortunate Attachment.

134 Lomasakangiyabhaddekaratta Sutta: Lomasakangiya and One Fortunate Attachment. The above four suttas all revolve around a stanza spoken
by the Buddha emphasising the need for present effort in developing insight into things as they are.

135 Culakammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Exposition of Action. The Buddha explains how kamma accounts for the fortune and misfortune of beings.

136 Mahakammavibhanga Sutta: The Greater Exposition of Action. The Buddha reveals subtle complexities in the workings of kamma that overturn simplistic dogmas and sweeping generalizations.

137 Salayatanavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Sixfold Base. The Buddha expounds the six internal and external sense bases and other related topics.

138 Uddesavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of a Summary. The venerable Maha Kaccana elaborates upon a brief saying of the Buddha on the training of  consciousness and the overcoming of agitation.

139 Aranavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Non-conflict. The Buddha gives a detailed discourse on things that lead to conflict and things that lead away from conflict.

140 Dhatuvibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Elements. Stopping at a potter’s workshop for the night, the Buddha meets a monk named Pukkusati and gives him a profound discourse on the elements culminating in the four foundations of arahantship.

141 Saccavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Truths. The venerable Sariputta gives a detailed analysis of the Four Noble Truths.

142 Dakkhinavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Offerings. The Buddha enumerates fourteen kinds of personal offerings and seven kinds of offerings made to the Sangha.

143 Anathapindikovada Sutta: Advice to Anathapindika. The venerable Sariputta is called to Anathapindika’s deathbed and gives him a stirring sermon on non-attachment.

144 Channovada Sutta: Advice to Channa. The venerable Channa, gravely ill, takes his own life despite the attempts of two brother-monks to dissuade him.

145 Punnovada Sutta: Advice to Punna. The bhikkhu Punna receives a short exhortation from the Buddha and decides to go live among the fierce people of a remote territory.

146 Alandakovada Sutta: Advice from Nandaka. The venerable Nandaka gives the nuns a discourse on impermanence.

147 CUlarahulovada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse of Advice to Rahula. The Buddha gives Rahula a discourse that leads him to the attainment of arahantship.

148 Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sets of Six. An especially profound and penetrating discourse on the contemplation of all the factors of sense experience as not-self.

149 Mahasalayatanika Sutta: The Great Sixfold Base. How wrong view about the six kinds of sense experience leads to future bondage, while right view about them leads to liberation.

150 Nagaravindeyya Sutta: To the Nagaravindans. The Buddha explains to a group of brahmin householders what kind of recluses and brahmins should be venerated.

151 Pindapataparisuddhi Sutta: The Purification of Almsfood. The Buddha teaches Sariputta how a bhikkhu should review himself to make himself worthy of almsfood. 152 lndrtyabhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties. The Buddha explains the supreme development of control over the sense faculties and the arahant’s mastery over his perceptions.

152 lndrtyabhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties. The Buddha explains the supreme development of control over the sense faculties and the arahant’s mastery over his perceptions.

Notes: The above summary is extracted from Bodhi Bhikkhu’s version.


《中部》【禅世界版】


【Chanworld.org收集整理】2018.03.07-2018.03.07-MG