《中部》內容簡介

《中部》內容簡介

《中部》(巴利文:Majjhima Nikaya)、《中尼迦耶》,為《巴利文大藏經》中經藏的組成部分,南傳上座部佛教典籍。其一共有152部佛經,分為三編:《根本五十經編》、《中分五十經編》和《後五十經編》,這些經文涉及佛教的所有基本教義,包括四聖諦、業報、無我、禪定、涅槃等,還有駁斥婆羅門教和耆那教等外道思想。其對應的北傳佛教經典為《中阿含經》。

以下中文材料源自郭良鋆的《巴利語三藏提要》。英文材料來自尊者菩提比丘的《中部》英文版。


《根本五十經編》(Mūlapaññāsam)

(一)根本法門品(Mūapppariyāya vagga )

1.《根本法門經》(Mūapppariyāya sutta)。

佛陀講述一切法的根本法門。他指出當時社會流行的觀點是將萬物(包括涅槃)與自我聯繫起來。而正等覺如來則認為地是地,不認為自己是地或地是我的,不以地為快樂。他知道快樂是痛苦之根,知道從有產生生、老和死。因此他滅貪斷欲,達到無上正等覺。

2.《一切漏經》(Sabbāsava sutta)。

佛陀指出能知能見的人能擺脫一切「漏」(煩惱)。擺脫「漏」的七種方法是見、護、用、忍、離、除和思惟。這樣的人不會陷入「有我說」和各種邪見,而能摒棄貪慾,擺脫束縛,斷滅煩惱。

3.《法嗣經》(Dhammadāyāda sutta)。

佛陀向眾比丘講述食嗣和法嗣兩種比丘,前者注重求食,後者注重求法。佛陀讚揚法嗣比丘,因為這樣的比丘少欲知足,勇猛精進。然後,舍利弗為眾比丘講述隱居之法,教導眾比丘排除貪、嗔、痴等罪惡,遵循中道(即八正道),獲得知見,導致平靜和神通,達到正覺和涅槃。

4.《怖駭經》(Bhayabherava sutta)。

佛陀以自己在林中修道的親身體驗說明心中有貪嗔痴的人才會產生恐俱,而心中無貪嗔痴的人能降伏恐懼,進入四禪,領悟四諦,達到解脫。

5.《無穢經》(Anangana sutta)。

舍利弗講述世上有四類人:一自身有污穢,並意識到自身有污穢,二自身有污穢,卻沒有意識到自身有污穢,三自身無污穢,並意識到自身無污穢,四自身無污穢,卻沒有意識到自身無污穢。舍利弗認為第一和第三類人是優者,第二和第四類人是劣者。舍利弗還向目犍連解釋污穢是指嗔怒和不滿,也就是惡、不善和欲境。

6.《願經》(Ākankheyya sutta)。

佛陀教導眾比丘,要實現心中願望,就要奉守戒律,內心寂靜,修習止觀。

7.《布喻經》(Vatthupama sutta)。

佛陀教導眾比丘要常使心凈,勿使心穢。心穢墮惡,心凈趨善。貪、嗔、痴等等是污穢。只有清除這些污穢,才會虔信佛法僧。這猶如染布,布若潔白,染色則鮮明;布若臟污,染色則黯淡。佛陀還教導婆羅門孫陀利迦·頗羅墮瓦遮說,在聖河中沐浴並不能滌除惡業,只有守戒修善,才能清凈純潔。

8.《損損經》(Sallekha sutta)。

佛陀教導眾比丘要摒棄世間流行的種種我論和世界論,要依據正智如實認識到「這不是我的,這不是我,這不是我之我」。然後,佛陀講述排除殺生、偷盜、妄語、貪、嗔、痴等等罪惡的五種法門:損損、發心、迴避、上升和般涅槃。

9.《正見經》(Sammādiṭṭhi sutta)。

舍利弗講述正見就是正確認識善惡及其產生的根源。惡是殺生、偷盜、淫慾、妄語、兩舌、惡語、粗語、綺語、貪婪、嗔恚和邪見。惡的根源是貪、嗔、痴。善就是擺脫這些惡。善的根源是不貪、不嗔、不痴。達到正見的途徑是正確認識貪、苦、老死、生、有、取、欲、受、觸、六處、名色、識、行、無明和漏的產生和滅寂之道。

10.《念處經》(Satipaṭṭhana sutta)。

佛陀講述身、受、心、法四念處,也就是身隨觀身而住,受隨觀受而住,心隨觀心而住,法隨觀法而住。佛陀指出四念處是凈化眾生、克服憂愁、擺脫苦惱、理解正理、達到涅槃的唯一途徑。

(二)師子吼品 (Sihanāda vagga)

11.《師子吼小經》(Cūḷasihanāda sutta)。

佛陀講述沙門與外道的區別。外道也可能認為自己與沙門一樣信奉導師、信奉法、戒行圓滿、親近同法者。但是,兩者在教義上存在差異。例如,外道不能全面認識四取:愛取、見取、戒禁取和我論取。而沙門能全面認識四取及其因緣,從而不取而達到涅槃。

12.《師子吼大經》(Mahāsihanāda sutta)。

佛陀講述如來十力、四無畏、四生、五趣和涅槃之道。佛陀還詳細講述自己過去曾修習種種外道苦行,如貪苦行、厭離苦行、孤獨苦行、住可怖叢林苦行和少食苦行,但都不能導致無上智慧,藉以滅苦而解脫。

13.《苦蘊大經》(Mahādukkhakkhandha sutta)。

佛陀講述欲味、欲患和欲出離,色味、色患和色出離,受味、受患和受出離。欲味是依色、聲、香、味和觸而生喜樂。在佛陀論列的種種欲患中,提到國王的刑罰,除了鞭抽、棍打、截手、截耳、截鼻外,還有「粥鍋」、「貝禿」、「羅服嘴」和「火環」等慘烈酷刑。

14.《苦蘊小經》(Cūḷadukkhakkhandha sutta)。

佛陀講述五欲味少而苦多、患多。佛陀還講述自己在王舍城靈鷲山時,曾與尼乾子派(耆那教)苦行者對話。尼乾子派崇尚苦行,主張以苦得樂,說道:「如果以樂得樂,那麼,尊者瞿曇比不上摩揭陀國頻毗沙羅王之樂多。」佛陀以禪定之樂說明自己比頻毗沙羅王之樂多。

15.《思量經》(Anumāna sutta)。

大目犍連講述難於教誨和易於教誨兩種人的表現,教導眾比丘要善於自我思量,自我觀察,做易於教誨之人,而不做難於教誨之人。

16.《心穢經》(Cetokhila sutta)。

佛陀教導眾比丘要排除五種心之荒穢,斬斷五種心之束縛,才能在佛法和戒律上長進和成熟。五種心之荒穢是於師懷疑、於法懷疑、於僧懷疑、於學懷疑和於同行不和。五種心之束縛是貪染、意欲、愛著、渴望和熱惱。

17.《林藪經》(Vanapattha sutta)。

佛陀講述有些比丘無論住林中、村中或都市中,都不能安心入定,斷滅煩惱,因為他們念念不忘衣食床座醫藥資具。而有些比丘無論住在林中、村中或都市中,都能安心入定,斷滅煩惱,因為他們認為自己出家修行並不是為了追求衣食床座醫藥資具。

18.《蜜丸經》(Madhupindika sutta)。

佛陀告訴釋迦族執杖者 (Daṇḍapāṇṇ),他的學說能止息神、魔和婆羅門各界中的爭論。執杖者聽後,搖頭縮舌,柱杖而去。然後,佛陀對眾比丘宣講自己的學說:人間盛行種種妄想,如果不生歡喜,不執著,也就消除貪、嗔、見、疑、驕、有欲和無明,也就消除棍棒刀劍、鬥爭、論爭、惡語和妄語,這樣就能滅盡罪惡。大迦旃延 (Mahakaccāna) 對佛陀所說法作了闡釋,得到佛陀認可。

19.《雙思經》(Dvedhāvitakka sutta)。

佛陀講述自己在成佛以前修行時,運用成雙思惟,在產生慾念、嗔念和害念時,便思考慾念、嗔念和害念的惡果,由此消除慾念、嗔念和害念。

20.《息思經》(Vitakkasanthāna sutta)。

佛陀講述比丘追求增上心(更高的思想境界),應該注意五個特徵:一、惡念產生時,應該思考善念;二、惡念仍產生時,應該觀察這些惡念的危害;三、惡念仍產生時,應該忘卻思念,不起思念;四、惡念仍產生時,應該止息思念;

五.惡念仍產生時,應該咬住牙齒,舌抵上顎,以心制心,由此降伏邪心,摒除貪嗔痴,內心安靜,凝思入定。

(三)第三品 (Tatiya vagga)

21.《鋸喻經》(Kakacūpama sutta)。

佛陀以譬喻說明比丘應當摒棄不善,猶如大婆羅樹應該修剪曲干朽枝,才能挺拔高聳。以溫順靜淑聞名的女居士韋提希跡禁不住婢女故意激怒,動手毆打婢女。因此,比丘應當於法崇敬,真心順從。正如鐵杴無法剷除大地,虛空無法繪畫顯像,火炬無法煮沸恆河,比丘應胸懷博大,布滿慈悲。即使遇到盜賊,利鋸加身,也不改慈悲心,不發惡語。

22.《蛇喻經》(Alagaddūpama sutta)。

比丘阿黎吒 (Ariṭṭha) 將佛陀說的障礙法,理解為非障礙法。佛陀據此指出,有些愚痴人學法,不以智慧理解真義,而徒資論辯,逞快口頭。他們於法不得要領,容易招致不幸。這猶如捕蛇不抓頭而抓尾,反讓蛇回首咬傷致死。接着,佛陀又以筏喻法,說明欲求度脫,不應執著。譬如有人編筏渡河,到達彼岸後,不必再扛着筏走,而應將筏拋在岸邊。佛陀以此教導眾比丘說,法尚可舍,何況非法。

23.《蟻垤經》(Vammika Sutta)。

鳩摩羅迦葉長老 (Kumārakassapa) 向佛陀詢問蟻垤之謎。佛陀解答說,蟻垤是四大組成的身體;賢者持劍發掘蟻侄蟻垤,劍是智慧,發掘是精進努力;發掘過程中,遇見的門閂是無知,蛙是嗔怒,叉道是疑惑,容器是五蓋,烏龜

是五取蘊,屠宰場是五欲,肉臠是貪染;最後遇見的龍(蛇)是漏盡比丘。

24.《傳車經》(Rathavinita sutta)。

舍利弗與富樓那彌多羅子 (Puṇṇa Mantāniputta) 互相問答,說明涅槃需要經過不同階段,不能一蹴而就。戒清凈、見清凈、心清凈、斷疑清凈、道非道知見清凈、道跡知見清凈和知見清凈,本身都不是目的,而是達到涅槃的方法,猶如波斯匿王從王舍城至薩甘陀城,要乘坐七驛傳車。

25.《撒餌經》(Nivāpa sutta)。

佛陀將沙門婆羅門比作鹿群,摩羅比作獵師,五欲比作獵師撒下的餌食,教導眾比丘要摒除五欲,修習四禪,這樣就能使摩羅目盲,不陷入摩羅的視界。

26.《聖求經》 (Ariyapariyesana sutta)。

佛陀講述有兩種追求:聖求和非聖求。非聖求是追求各種世俗生活之法。聖求是追求無上安穩涅槃。佛陀自述青年時代為聖求而出家,先後從師阿羅邏迦羅摩和郁頭迦羅摩弗,未能得道。後來,在優樓毗羅的斯那聚落獨自修行,獲得無上安穩涅槃。然後,經梵天勸請,在鹿野苑初轉法輪。

27.《象跡喻小經》(Cūḷahatthipādopama sutta)。

佛陀以捕象師能憑象跡識別真正的大象為喻,指出如來的足跡是戒、諸根防護、念、知、四禪、憶宿命智、生死智和漏盡智。

28.《象跡喻大經》(Mahāhatthipadoparna sutta)。

舍利弗告知眾比丘,正如一切動物足跡可以納入大象足跡中,一切善法也可以納入四聖諦中。他着重解釋了苦諦中的五取蘊(色、受、想、行、識)和四大(地、火、水、風)。

29.《心材喻大經》 (Mahāsāropama sutta)。

佛陀講述有些人出家而得利養、恭敬和名聞,於是心滿意足,自贊毀他,驕慢放逸,由此陷入苦境。這些人猶如入林選材,截取枝葉,拋棄樹榦。

30.《心材喻小經》(Cūḷasāropama sutta)。

本經內容與前經類同。佛陀講述出家而得利養、恭敬和名聞,不應以此為滿足,而應精進努力,修習戒定慧,達到不動心解脫。

(四)雙大品(Mahāyamaka vagga)

31.《牛角林小經》(Cūḷagosiṅga sutta)。

本經佛陀讚美三位長老:阿㝹樓馱 (Anuruddha)、那提耶 (Nandiya) 和金毗羅 (Kimhila)。他們三人結伴住在牛角婆羅林中,友善和睦,精進努力,修習四禪定,皆得漏盡。

32.《牛角林大經》(Mahāgosiṅga sutta)。

大目犍連、大迦葉、阿難、阿㝹樓馱、離越多 (Revata) 和舍利弗一起談論,在這風光秀麗的牛角娑羅林中,應該居住怎樣的比丘才能使它增添光輝。阿難說於一切法多聞多記,離越多說樂於禪定,阿㝹樓馱說具有天眼通,大迦葉說安於林居,大目犍連說互相問法,舍利弗說能降伏心。佛陀肯定了這些說法,也提出一種比丘:不達漏盡,決不起座。

33.《牧牛者大經》(Malāgopālaka sutta)。

佛陀講述牧牛十一法:知色、通相、除蟲卵、治瘡痍、放煙熏蚊、知渡處、知飲處、知道路、知牧處、擠干牛奶、尊敬老牛和帶頭牛,藉以譬喻修行之法。

34.《牧牛者小經》(Cūḷagopālaka sutta)。

佛陀以牧牛者驅牛過河為譬喻,說明擇師的重要性。正如愚蠢的牧牛者驅牛渡河時,不觀察此岸彼岸有無渡頭,橫遭滅頂之災,任何沙門婆羅門不明此界彼界、魔界非魔界和死亡界非死亡界,也會導致信眾不幸。

35.《薩遮加小經》(Cūḷasaccaka sutta)。

尼乾子(耆那教徒)薩遮迦 (Saccaka) 能言善辯,聞聽佛陀宣說「諸行無常,諸法無我」,率眾與佛陀辯論。薩遮迦提出「色是我之我,受是我之我,想是我之我,行是我之我,識是我之我」。佛陀作出答辯:一、我對色、受、想、行、識並無支配力;二、色、受、想、行、識無常;三、無常者為苦。因此,它們都不能說成是我之我。薩遮迦聽後,只得表示認同。

36.《薩遮迦大經》(Mahāsaccaka sutta)。

佛陀與薩遮迦談論身修習和心修習。佛陀講述自己的修行經歷:先後從師阿羅邏迦羅摩和郁頭迦羅摩弗,未能得道。然後,獨自前往優樓毗羅的斯那聚落修習止息禪 (appānaka Jhāna),又實行絕食,以致身體瘦弱,僅剩皮骨。後放棄絕食,修習四禪,得宿命智、生死智和漏盡智,領悟四諦,達到解脫。

37.《愛盡小經》(Cūḷataṇhāsamkhaya sutta)。

帝釋天下凡詢問佛陀愛盡解脫法,佛陀為他說法。然後,目犍連升入三十三天觀察帝釋天是否理解此法。帝釋天向目犍連誇示最勝殿。目犍連為挫其傲氣,運用神通,以腳姆指力震撼最勝殿。帝釋天驚恐不已,遵從目犍連的旨意,複述佛陀所說愛盡解脫法。

38.《愛盡大經》(Mahātaṇhāsankhaya sutta)。

漁夫之子比丘嗏帝認為識雖然流轉輪迴,但始終保持同一性。佛陀批駁嗏帝的這種錯誤見解,指出識依緣而生:緣眼於色而生眼識,緣耳於聲而生耳識,緣鼻於香而生鼻識,緣舌於味而生舌識,緣身於觸而生身識,緣意於法而生意識。已生者由四食(摶食、觸食、思食和識食)所成。而四食也是依緣而生。佛陀詳細講述了十二因緣說,指出嗏帝身陷愛(貪)之大網中。

39.《馬邑大經》(Mahā-assapura sutta)。

佛陀講述名副其實的沙門婆羅門應該有慚愧心,身口意清凈,守護諸根,飲食適度,保持警覺,具備正智,結跏趺坐,排除五蓋,進入四禪,得宿命智、生死智和漏盡智,領悟四諦,達到解脫。

40.《馬邑小經》(Cūḷa-assapura sutta)。

佛陀講述作為沙門婆羅門,不在於穿袈裟、裸形或塗泥,住於露天或樹下,誦咒或束髮,而在於摒棄貪慾、憤怒、惱恨、妒忌、欺誑等等一切惡欲和邪見,住於慈悲喜舍,漏盡而得解脫。

(五)雙小品 (Cūḷayamaka vagga)

41.《薩羅村婆羅門經》(Sāleyyaka sutta)。

佛陀講述行非正道非正法者墮入地獄,行正道正法者升入天國。佛陀按照身口意列舉了各種非正道非正法行為和正道正法行為。

42.《鞞蘭若村婆羅門經》(Verañaka sutta)。

本經內容與前經相同,只是聽眾對象不同。

43.《有明大經》(Mahāvedalla sutta)。

本經說大拘絺羅 (Mahākotthita) 和舍利弗問答,論題涉及慧、識、受、想、清凈意識、慧眼、正見、有、再生、五根和心解脫等。

44.《有明小經》(Cūḷavedalla sutta)。

本經說優婆塞毗舍佉 (Visākha) 和比丘尼法授 (Dhamma dinnā) 問答,論題涉及有身 (sakkāya) 即五取蘊、有身見和非有身見、八正道、三行、受想滅、三受和涅槃等。

45.《得法小經》(Cūḷadhamma samādāna sutta)。

佛陀講述四種獲取之法:一、現在樂得未來苦,如陷於淫慾者;二、現在苦得未來苦,如裸形苦行者;三、現在苦得未來樂,如常受苦憂而修習梵行者;四、現在樂得未來樂,如不受苦憂而修習四禪者。

46.《得法大經》(Mahādharnma samādāna sutta)。

佛陀講述四種獲取之法,論旨與前經基本相同。

47.《思察經》(Vimamsaka sutta)。

佛陀講述觀察如來是否正等覺的方法:觀察如來依眼依耳可識之法是否純凈,是否無畏而寂靜,斷滅貪慾,無所執著。只有依據這樣的觀察,才會堅信如來和如來之法。

48.《㤭賞彌經》(Kosambi sutta)。

㤭賞彌眾比丘發生爭論,互相攻擊。佛陀勸導他們要互相尊重,和合一致,教給他們六法:作慈身業、作慈口業、作慈意業、共食、共戒和共見。

49.《梵天請經》(Brahmanimantanika sutta)。

有一位名為婆伽 (Baka) 的梵天,認為世界永恆,沒有轉生,佛陀運用神通,升入梵天界,向婆伽宣示無常說。』然後,佛陀在婆伽前隱形,而婆伽不能在佛陀前隱形。婆伽自認不如佛陀,接受佛陀的說法。摩羅要求佛陀不要向他人宣示此法,佛陀予以拒絕。

50.《呵魔經》(Māratajjaniya sutta)。

摩羅化作細形進入目犍連腹中,目犍連便告訴摩羅:自己前生曾是名為杜辛 (Dūsin) 的摩羅,由於騷擾持戒比丘,用石塊打傷尊者弟子毗陀羅 (Vidhura)的頭,而墮入地獄,倍受煎熬。因此,他奉勸摩羅不要騷擾佛陀和佛弟子。摩羅聽後,隱沒不見。

《中分五十經編》 (Majjhimapaṇṇāsam )

(一)居士品 (Gahapati vagga)

51.《乾達羅伽經》(Kandaraka sutta)。

佛陀講述世上有四種人:一、折磨自己;二、折磨他人;三、折磨自己和他人;四、不折磨自己,也不折磨他人,無欲清涼,幸福快樂。

52.《八城經》(Aṭṭhakanāgara sutta)。

阿難講述達到涅槃的過程:進人初禪、二禪、三禪和四禪,住於慈、悲、喜和舍,達到空無邊、識無邊和無所有。八城居士陀薩摩 (Dasama) 聽後,說這好像通向寶庫的十一個入口,又好像一座住宅有十一扇門,一旦着火,能安全逃出。

53.《有學經》(Sekha sutta)。

佛陀應邀在迦毗羅衛城釋迦族新落成的會堂中說法至深夜。佛陀感到背痛,需要休息,請阿難繼續說有學法。於是,阿難講述持戒、守護根門、飲食有節、保持警覺、七正法和四禪。

54.《哺多利經》(Potoliya sutta)。

佛陀講述斷絕俗事八法:不殺生、不偷盜、不妄語、不兩舌、不貪婪、不惱恨、不忿怒、不驕慢。佛陀還以七個譬喻(狗啃骨頭、兀鷹爭肉、火把逆風、推入火坑、夢中樂園、租借榮華和砍倒果樹)說明欲樂招致禍患。

55.《看婆迦經》(Jivaka sutta)。

佛陀講述食肉問題。佛陀指出,比丘如果聽到、看到或懷疑這肉是特意為他宰殺的,那就不能食用這肉。否則,便能食用。佛陀也指出,殺生供奉比丘不是善行。

56.《優婆離經》(Upāli sutta)。

尼乾子(耆那教徒)長苦行 (Dighatappasin) 認為身、口、意三業中,身業罪過最大。佛陀向他說明意業罪過最大。長苦行回去報告尼乾陀若提子(Nigaṇṭhanātaputta)。優婆離自告奮勇前來駁斥佛陀的觀點,結果反被佛陀說服而皈依佛陀。尼乾陀若提子聽說後,來見優波離,優波離為佛陀大唱讚歌,尼乾陀若提子聽後,口吐鮮血。

57.《狗行者經》(Kukkuravatika sutta)。

波那 (Puṇṇa) 是模仿牛生活的苦行者;塞尼耶 (Seniya) 是模仿狗生活的裸體苦行者。佛陀警告他倆將來會墮入地獄或轉生為畜生。佛陀講述業有四種:黑業生黑,白業生白,黑白業生黑白,不黑不白業生不黑不白,即業的滅寂。波那和塞尼耶聽後,皈依佛陀。

58.《無畏王子經》(Abhayarājakumāra sutta)。

尼乾陀若提子指使無畏王子向佛陀詢問一個難題:如來說令人不快的話嗎?如果佛陀認可,就問他與普通人有何不同;如果佛陀否認,就問他怎麼責罵提婆達多,與提婆達多鬧翻?佛陀看見王子抱在懷中的小孩,便問王子:如

果石子或小棍含進小孩嘴中,怎麼辦?王子說,趕緊把它掏出來,即使出點血也不怕。於是,佛陀說:如果有必要,他也會說令人不快的話。王子聽後,佩服佛陀,皈依佛法僧。

59.《多受經》(Bahuvedaniya sutta)。

優陀夷 (Udāyin) 和缽遮甘伽 (Pañcakaṅga) 為受分三種還是兩種,爭執不一。佛陀告訴阿難說,他按照各種分類說法,受可以有多種分類,不必為此爭吵不和。接着,佛陀講述欲樂有五種:色、聲、香、味和觸,但這不是至高的幸福。比這更高的幸福是進入四禪,達到空無邊、識無邊和無所有。

60.《無戲論經》(Āpaṇṇaka sutta)。

佛陀向薩羅村眾婆羅門講述無戲論法。佛陀列舉了世上流行的各種互相對立的戲論,最後指出應該成為這樣的人:既不折磨自己,也不折磨他人,無欲清涼,幸福快樂。

(二)比丘品 (Bhikkhuvagga)

61.《教誡羅睺羅菴婆羅林經》(Ambalaṭṭhikārāhulovāda sutta)。

佛陀教導羅睺羅戒妄語。他譬喻說,說謊者像潑掉的水那樣毫無價值,像奮不顧身的大象那樣無惡不作。他告誡羅睺羅要像照鏡子那樣,經常自我反省,保持身、口、意的純潔。

62.《教誡羅睺羅大經》(Mahārāhulovāda sutta)。

佛陀向羅睺羅講述五蘊無常,教導羅睺羅厭棄地、水、火、風和空;不讓感覺印象執著於心,猶如地、水、火、風和空對於加在它們身上的任何東西無動於衷;住於慈悲喜舍,作不凈觀、無常觀和入出息念。

63.《摩羅迦小經》(Cūḷamālunkya sutta)。

比丘摩羅迦子要求佛陀解答世界永恆與否、世界無限與否、命與身同一與否和如來死後存在與否這類問題,否則他就要還俗。佛陀勸告他說,解答這些問題無助於達到正覺和涅槃。譬如有一個人被箭射中,醫生正準備把毒箭拔出,他卻喊道:「等一等,別忙着拔,讓我先弄清楚:是誰射的箭?是剎帝利,還是婆羅門?是吠舍,還是首陀羅?他出身哪個家族?長得高還是矮?這支箭是哪一類?哪一種的?”結果會怎麼樣呢?沒等弄清楚這些問題,他就會死去。因此,佛陀說自己要解答的問題是如何通向正覺和涅槃的四諦(苦、集、滅和道)。

64.《摩羅迦大經》(Mahāmāluṅkya sutta)。

佛陀講述束縛眾生的五下分結:有身見、疑惑、戒禁取、欲貪和嗔恚,指出擺脫五下分結的途徑。

65.《跋陀利經》(Bhaddali sutta)。

跋陀利不遵守佛陀規定的一坐食(一日一餐)。佛陀向他講述持戒的必要性,正如一匹馬要經過各個階段的訓練,具備了十種品質,才能成為國王的寶馬,同樣,一個人只有遵行八正道,獲得正智和正解脫,才能享有無上福田。

66.《鶉喻經》(Laṭukikopama sutta)。

佛陀講述有些人像鵪鶉不能擺脫枯朽的蔓藤束縛,而有些人像大象能掙脫牢固的皮帶束縛,佛陀教導修習四禪,達到空無邊,識無邊,無所有,非有想非無想,滅受想,從而擺脫任何束縛。

67.《車頭聚落經》(Cātumā sutta)。

舍利弗和目犍連帶着五百比丘到車頭聚落來見佛陀。佛陀聽見眾比丘發出喧嘩之聲,打發他們離去。後來,佛陀向這些比丘說法,告誡他們出家者依然存在四種恐怖:忿怒、貪食、五欲樂和女人,猶如入水者會遇到波浪、鱷魚、漩渦和鯊魚。

68.《那羅伽波那村經》(Naḷakapāna sutta) 佛陀告訴眾比丘,他宣傳自己已經達到漏盡,他的一些信徒已經獲得各種成就,並不是哄騙別人,為自己謀取利養、恭敬和名聲,而是給青年人樹立榜樣。

69.《瞿尼師經》(Gulissāni sutta)。

舍利弗講述林住比丘進入僧團後,應該尊重和關心其他僧眾,不侵佔他人座位,不過早入村乞食,不驕慢,不嚼舌,守護根門,節制飲食,保持警覺,精進努力,正念正智,學法學律。

70.《積吒山邑經》(Kiṭāgiri sutta)。

積吒山邑的兩位比丘不遵行佛陀規定的一坐食。佛陀告誡他們說,他的教導全部依據經驗和智慧,他們應該遵行。佛陀講述了七種人:俱分解脫、慧解脫、身證、見到、信解、隨法行和隨信行。佛陀勉勵他們遵行他的教導,以期獲得智慧和不還果。

(三)普行者品 (Paribbājaka vagga)

71.《婆蹉衢多三明經》(Tevijja vacchagotta sutta)。

遊方僧婆蹉衢多對佛陀的學問懷有誤解。佛陀向他解釋自己具有的「三明」不是一般的「三明」(三吠陀),而是宿命智、天眼智和漏盡智。

72.《婆蹉衢多火喻經》(Aggivacchagotta sutta)。

佛陀告誡遊方僧婆蹉衢多,思考世界是否永恆、是否無限、命與身是否同一和如來死後是否存在這類問題無助於正覺和涅槃。這正如燃燒的火是可見的,一旦熄滅,誰也說不清消失在何方。因此,唯有如實認識五蘊及其斷滅之道,才能達到正覺和涅槃。

73.《婆蹉衢多大經》(Mahāvacchagotta sutta)。

佛陀對遊方僧婆蹉衢多講述善法和不善法。婆蹉衢多皈依佛門後,佛陀又向他講述止法和觀法。最後,婆蹉衢多修成具有大神通的「三明」比丘。

74.《長爪經》(Dighanakha sutta)。

佛陀講述有些人認為一切於我皆可,有些人認為一切於我皆不可,有些人認為一切於我有可有不可。佛陀要求遊方僧長爪不要執著這些觀點,陷入爭論和煩惱。佛陀向長爪解釋身和受的緣起,指明解脫之道。

75.《摩犍提經》( Mogandiya sutta )。

摩犍提說佛陀是「扼殺者」(bhūnahu)。佛陀予以否認,說明他教導的是調伏諸根。他講述自己年青時享有各種欲樂,後來認識到它們無常,便摒棄一切欲樂,內心平靜。他不再貪戀欲樂,猶如麻風病人治癒後,不會留戀麻風病。

76.《遜陀迦經》(Sandaka sutta)。

阿難講述四種非梵行(不凈行)觀:一、認為善行惡行無關緊要;二、認為自己做或引起他人做,都不造成惡業;三、或惡或善,沒有原因;四、七身(地、水、火、風、樂、苦和命)既不創造,也不被創造,永恆不變。人只有到輪迴完畢時,苦才結束。阿難還講述了四種不能令人滿意的梵行:一、自稱全知和全見;二、按照傳說和典藏說法;三、依據思辨哲學說法;四、思想遲鈍和混亂。最後,阿難講述佛陀所說法。

77.《善生優陀夷大經》(Mahāsakuludāyi sutta)。

遊方僧善生優陀夷將佛陀與外道師相比,認為佛陀受弟子尊敬的原因是少食、少欲、知足和隱居等。佛陀告訴他,主要原因是具有無上戒、無上知見和無上智慧,說四諦和四念處以及四正勤、四神足、五根、五力、七覺支、八正道、八解脫、八勝處、十遍處、四禪和六神通。

78.《沙門文祁子經》(Samanamandika sutta)。

遊方僧烏伽訶摩那 (Uggahamāna)v 告訴木匠般遮甘伽,成為最上沙門的四種品德是:身不作惡業,口不出惡言,心不懷惡念,不以邪惡方式謀生。而佛陀告訴般遮甘伽,成為最上沙門需要具備十種品德:正見、正思惟、正語、正行、正命、正精進、正念、正定、正智和正解脫。

79.《善生優陀夷小經》(Cūḷasakuludāyi sutta)。

遊方僧善生優陀夷認為通過不殺生、不偷盜、不淫慾、不妄語和修苦行能達到極樂(ekantasukha,「一向樂」)世界。佛陀指出善生優陀夷所謂的極樂世界是虛妄之談,只有修習四禪,獲得宿命智、生死智、天眼智、漏盡智和解脫,才是真正的極樂世界。

80.《鞞摩那修經》(Vekhanassa sutta)。

佛陀告訴遊方僧鞞摩那修,唯有阿羅漢才真正了解五欲、欲樂和最上欲樂。鞞摩那修感到惱怒。佛陀向他說法,令他信服。

(四)王品 (Rāja Vagga)

81.《陶師經》(Ghaṭkāra sutta)。

佛陀路過一個地方,發出微笑。阿難問他為何微笑?佛陀便講述自己的一個前生故事:闍帝波羅 (Jotipāla) 和陶師聽迦葉佛說法後,闍帝波羅出家成為比丘,而陶師為了侍奉雙目失明的年老父母,不能出家。但他極端虔誠,履行居士的一切職責。因此,迦葉佛辭謝迦屍國王的邀請,而到陶師那裡度雨安居。佛陀點明闍帝波羅是自己的前生。

82.《賴吒和羅經》(Rāṭṭhapāla sutta)。

賴吒和羅皈依佛陀,出家修行,證得阿羅漢果。後來,他回家看望父母。他的父母出示大量錢財,並讓他的諸位妻子盛裝打扮,勸他還俗。賴吒和羅毫不動心。拘羅婆那 (Koravya) 國王詢問賴吒和羅:你既不衰老,也無疾病,又

不貧窮,也沒有失去親人,為何出家?賴吒和羅便向他宣講佛陀的教海:世界無常,世界無庇護,世界無所有和世界不知饜足。

83.《大天㮈林經》(Makhādeva Sutta)。

佛陀向阿難講述自己前生曾為彌底羅國的大天王 (Makhādeva),在享盡人間榮華富貴後,棄世出家,以求得到天國的快樂。此後,子子孫孫都遵循大天王的成規,一旦發現生出第一根白髮,便出家入大夭㮈林修行,得以轉生梵天界。但是,傳到尼彌王的兒子竭那迦王時,他沒有這樣做,這個傳統便中斷了。佛陀告訴阿難,他過去創立的那個成規,只是轉生梵天界,並不能達到涅槃。只有他現在創立的八正道,才能達到涅槃。因此,佛陀希望阿難不要像竭那迦王那樣,讓涅槃之道失傳。

84.《摩陀羅經》(Madhura sutta)。

大迦旃延向摩陀羅國王阿文堤波多 (Avantiputta) 說明,無論哪個種姓,只要擁有財富,都會受人侍奉;只要作惡,都會墮入地獄;只要出家,都會受人尊敬,因此,四種姓平等,不能說婆羅門是最高種姓。

85.《菩提王子經》(Bodhirājakumāra Sutta)。佛陀告訴菩提王子,憑苦行不能獲得幸福。佛陀講述了自己出家得道的經驗。菩提王子詢問出家得道需要多長時間,佛陀為他講述五精勤支。

86.《鴦掘摩經》(Aṅgulimāla sutta)。

強盜鴦掘摩持刀追殺佛陀,而佛陀施展神通,鴦掘摩追趕不上。於是,鴦掘摩皈依佛陀。波斯匿王派兵捉拿強盜鴦掘摩,發現他在佛陀的僧團中,便讚歎佛陀調伏凶賊的能力。鴦掘摩改邪歸正,精勤修行。有人向他投擲石頭、土塊或棍棒,以致他頭破血流,衣破缽毀。但佛陀告訴他這是現世業報,必須忍受。最後,鴦掘摩修成阿羅漢。

87.《愛生經》(Piyajātika sutta)。

佛陀勸導一位失去愛子而悲泣的居士,要控制感官和心,一切痛苦和悲哀產生於愛。佛陀也向波斯匿王的王后派來的婆羅門那利鴦伽講述這個道理。

88.《鞞訶提經》(Bāhitaka sutta)。

阿難向波斯匿王講述為智者責難和不為智者責難的身、口、意三方面的行為。波斯匿王聽後十分高興,把鞞訶提衣施捨給阿難。

89.《法莊嚴經》(Dhamma Cetiya Sutta)。

波斯匿王拜訪佛陀,盛讚佛法僧。他說在國王、沙門、婆羅門、家主的生活中總是存在衝突和爭吵,而比丘們生活在平靜和諧之中。波斯匿王還講到自己和佛陀都是㤭薩羅國的剎帝利,年齡都是八十歲。

90.《普棘刺林經》(Kaṇṇaktthala sutta)。佛陀為波斯匿王解答問題,佛陀否認全知全見,肯定四種姓平等,認為邪惡的梵天仍會再生人間,而仁慈的梵天不會再生人間。

(五)婆羅門品 (Brāhmana vagga)

91.《梵摩經》(Brahmayu sutta)。

婆羅門梵摩得知佛陀具有三十二大人相,親自前往大天㮈林拜見佛陀。佛陀用神通顯示了兩個不為常人所見的廣長舌相和陰馬藏相。然後,又向梵摩解釋「牟尼」、「佛陀」的含義以及四聖諦。最後,梵摩皈依佛法僧,成為優婆塞。

92.《賽勒經》(Sela sutta)。

婆羅門賽勒看到佛陀身上有三十二大人相後,皈依佛法僧。此經與《小尼迦耶》中的《經集》第三品第三章《賽勒經》相同。

93.《阿攝和經》(Assalāyana sutta)。

婆羅門青年阿攝和詢問佛陀對婆羅門種姓高貴論的看法。佛陀詢問阿攝和,剎帝利和婆羅門用好木鑽取的火和旃陀羅等用糟木鑽取的火有何區別?阿攝和說沒有區別。佛陀以此說明一切種姓皆平等。佛陀還說到當時在瑜那和甘蒲闍(Yona-Kamboja) 等地並無四種姓,而只有貴族和奴僕兩種種姓。

94.《瞿哆牟伽經》(Gh.otamukha sutta)。

優陀那 (Udena) 長老向婆羅門瞿哆牟伽講述世上有四種人:一、折磨自己,二、折磨他人,三、折磨自己和他人,四、不折磨自己,也不折磨他人,無欲清凈,幸福快樂。

95.《商伽經》(Caṅki Sutta)。

佛陀指出婆羅門自稱掌握絕對真理是徒然的。婆羅門傳承的真理猶如一隊前後互相牽拉的盲人。佛陀講述應該如何信奉和獲得真理。

96.《郁瘦歌邏經》(Esukāri sutta)。

郁瘦歌邏婆羅門認為出身是區別人的唯一標準,所以,婆羅門受四種姓侍奉,剎帝利受三種姓侍奉,吠舍受二種姓侍奉,首陀羅受一種姓侍奉。而佛陀認為任何種姓的人都能行善,這是真正的侍奉;任何種姓的人都能求法,這是正真的財富。

97.《陀然經》(Dhānañjāni sutta)。

舍利弗勸導婆羅門陀然不要放逸,借口供養家庭而作惡,要依法行善,以免墮入地獄。後來,陀然病重。他按照舍利弗的教導,修習四梵住(慈、悲、喜、舍),死後得以再生梵天界。

98.《婆塞特經》(Vāsaṭṭha sutta)。

佛陀講述怎樣的人才是真正的婆羅門。婆羅門並不是由出身決定,而是由品行決定。本經與《小尼迦耶》中的《經集》第三品第九章《婆塞特經》相同。

99.《須婆經》(Subha sutta)。

佛陀向婆羅門青年須婆說法,指出修習四梵住(慈、悲、喜、舍),能再生梵天界,與梵天共住。

100 .《傷歌邏經》(Sangārava sutta)。

女婆羅門陀那奢尼 (Dhānañjāni) 讚歎佛陀。婆羅門青年傷歌邏指責陀那奢尼,作為婆羅門不應該稱頌削髮的出家人。後來,傷歌邏見到佛陀,聽了佛陀說法後,也皈依佛陀。


《後分五十經編》(Uparipapṇṇāsam )

(一)天臂品 (Devadaha vagga)

101.《夭臂經》(Devadaha sutta)。

佛陀批駁尼乾子(耆那教)的「依苦行滅一切苦」的觀點。尼乾子認為人的任何經驗——苦、樂、不苦不樂,都源自前生之業。所以,通過苦行,排除舊業,不作新業,就能滅除一切苦。

102.《五三經》(Pañcattaya sutta)。

佛陀講述沙門婆羅門關於未來的各種觀點:一、死後我(靈魂)有想,二、死後我無想,三、死後我非有想非無想,四、死後斷滅,五、現世涅槃。前三類又能統稱為「死後有我」。這樣,五類又可說成三類。因此,經名為 《五三經》 。而佛陀是超越這些觀點的。

103.《如何經》(Kimti Sutta)。

佛陀教導眾比丘要努力修習四念處、四正勤、四神足、五根、五力、七覺支和八正道,和睦相處,不要爭吵。如果出現分歧,要妥善處理。

104.《舍彌村經》(Sāmagāma sutta)。

尼乾陀若提子去世後,弟子們分成兩派,互相爭論。阿難將這消息告訴佛陀,擔心佛陀去世後,僧團也會發生分裂。佛陀便講述六諍根、四諍事、七滅諍和六調停法。

105.《善星經》(Sunakkhatta sutta)。

離車族善星詢問有關比丘自認所證的問題。佛陀解釋說,有的比丘注重世俗利益,有的比丘擺脫世俗束縛,有的比丘注重禪定,有的比丘注重涅槃。佛陀又以譬喻說明,醫生拔出毒箭後,病人還只能緩慢行動,直至傷口痊癒。貪慾是箭,六根是傷口,無知是毒,念處是醫生的診視,正智是醫生的手術刀,如來是醫生。

106.《不動利益經》(Aṇañjasappāya sutta)。

佛陀講述依不動利益行道,剷除由慾望產生的種種障礙,達到心的寧靜和不動,然後超越無所有處想和非想非非想,達到無取著的涅槃和無取著的心解脫。

107.《算數家目犍連經》(Gaṇakamoggallana sutta)。

佛陀講述比丘修行也像世間諸事和婆羅門修行那樣是循序漸進的。比丘修行的順序為:一、持戒,二、守護六根,三、飲食有節,四、保持警覺,五、持念正知,六、獨坐修行,七、排除五蓋,八、修習四禪。佛陀說他已經指明通向涅槃之道,但能否達到涅槃,全靠比丘自己。

108.《瞿默目犍連經》(Gopakamoggallāna sutta)。

阿難講述佛陀去世後,沒有一個比丘具足佛陀的品質和教海,僧團沒有推舉出眾比丘皈依的對象,而是以法為師,依法治教。佛法是比丘行為的準則,也是僧團和睦的依據。阿難列舉了十種可喜法:受持學戒、廣學多聞、少欲知足、精通四禪、神足通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、天眼通和漏盡通。

109.《滿月大經》(Mahāpaṇṇama sutta)。

佛陀解釋五取蘊和有身見,指出通過認識諸蘊無我而達到解脫。

110.《滿月小經》(Cūḷapaṇṇama sutta)。

佛陀講述怎樣依據人的思想、言語和行為識別惡人和善人。

(二)不斷品 (Anupada vagga)

111.《不斷經》(Anupada sutta)。

佛陀稱讚舍利弗學問淵博,智慧深邃,能觀「不斷的法觀」,依次完成戒定慧,達到解脫。佛陀說舍利弗是法的繼承人,能繼續轉動無上法輪。

112.《六凈經》(Chabbisodhana sutta)。

佛陀講述對自稱獲得解脫的人既不要讚頌,也不要指責,而是要提出問題,進行考察,斷定真偽。考察的問題包括四說、五取蘊、六界、十二處、去我見以及出家動機和修道過程。

113.《善士經》(Sappurisa sutta)。

佛陀講述以自己的出身、名聲、利養、多聞、持律、說法、頭陀(苦行)和禪定為榮耀,自贊毀他,不是善士法。

114.《應習不應習經》(Sevitahba-asevitabb sutta)。

佛陀提出在身、口和意等方面應該修習和不應該修習的行為。舍利弗予以詳細解釋,得到佛陀讚許。

115.《多界經》(Bahudhātuka sutta)。

佛陀講述智者沒有恐懼、麻煩和不幸。而作為智者,必須精通十八界、三界、二界、六內外處、十二緣起和處非處(合理性和不合理性)。

116.《仙吞山經》(Isigili sutta)。仙吞山是摩揭陀國王舍城周圍的五座山之一。佛陀講述過去曾有五百辟支佛在此山居住,達到涅槃,並列舉了一些辟支佛的名字。

117.《大四十經》(Mahā cattarisakā sutta)。

佛陀講述正定以正見為前提。正定有十法,即八正道、正智和正解脫。前七正道是正定的方法,正智和正解脫是正定的結果。

118.《入出息念經》(Ānāpanasati sutta)。

佛陀講述修習入出息念,可以達到四念處,進而達到七覺支和明解脫。

119.《身行念經》(Kāyagatāsati sutta)。

佛陀講述身念處的修習法和功德。身念處的修習法主要是對身體作不凈觀。

120.《行生經》(Samkhāruppatti Sutta)。

佛陀講述比丘具足信、戒、聞、施和慧,便能依隨自己的意願,來世轉生剎帝利或婆羅門,或再生天國,或達到涅槃。

(三)空品 (Suññata vagga)

121.《空小經》(Cūḷa suññata sutta)。

佛陀講述人的煩惱是由想引起,要消除煩惱,便應消除各種想,諸如村莊想、人想、樹林想、地想、四無色處想(無限空想、無限意識想、一無所有想、非想非非想)和六處身想等。如能將欲漏、有漏和無明漏化為空無,便能獲得真正的解脫。

122.《空大經》(Mahāsuññata Sutta)。

佛陀講述比丘應該樂於獨住遠離之處,潛心空無,進入四禪,身口意純潔,摒棄五欲。比丘追隨導師,並不是為了聽取對經文的解釋,而是為了求得正覺和涅槃。

123.《未曾有法經》(Acchariyabhutadhamma Sutta)。

阿難講述佛陀由兜率夭進入母胎而降生人間的種種奇蹟。佛陀誕生後,雙腳站立,面朝北方,行走七步,環視各方,說道:「我是世上最傑出者,我是世上最優秀者,我是世上最年長者。這是我的最後一生,不會再有轉生。」

124.《薄拘羅經》(Bakkula Sutta)。

薄拘羅告訴朋友阿支羅迦葉 (Acelakassapa) 自己在八十年的比丘生涯中,沒有犯過任何過錯,始終過着純潔的生活。阿支羅迦葉聽後,也出家修行。

125.《調御地經》(Dantabhūmi sutta)。

佛陀講述沉迷於欲樂的人無法修行,正如沉迷於樹林的野象無法調御。馴象師首先要把野象帶離樹林,然後才能用各種方法馴服它。同樣,對人的調伏也應該首先讓他出家,摒棄在家生活的慾念,然後,才能循序漸進,精勤修行。

126.《浮彌經》(Bhūmija sutta)。

佛陀講述要獲得修行的功果,首先要有正見。缺乏正見,猶如榨沙取油,擠牛角取乳,凝水取酷,鑽濕木取火。

127.《阿那律經》(Anuruddha sutta)。

阿那律向木匠般遮甘伽解釋大心解脫和無量心解脫。大心解脫是以大心充滿一樹、兩樹乃至整個大地。無量心解脫是以慈心充滿一方、兩方乃至整個世界。

128.《隨煩惱經》(Upakkilesa sutta)。

佛陀想調停㤭賞彌地區比丘們的爭論。但比丘們說由他們自己解決。然後,佛陀到阿那律、難提耶和金毗羅三人修行的樹林,向他們講述排除煩惱的三昧修習法。

129.《賢愚經》(Bālapaṇḍita sutta)。

佛陀講述愚者死後墮入地獄或畜生道,賢者死後升入天國。愚者在地獄中將受到各種酷刑懲處,而賢者在天國則享受連人間轉輪王也無法比擬的快樂。

130.《天使經》(Devaduta sutta)。

佛陀講述行善者升入天國,作惡者墮入地獄。每個墮人地獄的人,先由閻摩王詢問他有沒有見到過五天使:生、老、病、刑罰和死,然後,由獄卒帶入種種地獄,接受懲處。

(四)分別品 (Vibhaṅga vagga)

131.《一夜賢者經》(Bhaddekaratta sutta)。

佛陀為眾比丘作「一夜賢者」偈,強調不要留戀過去,不要想未來,而要把握現在當下,精勤努力。

132.《阿難一夜賢者經》(Ānandabha ddekaratta sutta)。

阿難向眾比丘講述一夜賢者偈的由來。佛陀又為阿難解釋此偈。

133.《大迦旃延一夜賢者經》(Mahākaccana bhaddekaratta sutta)。

一位天神向比丘三彌提 (Samiddhi) 詢問一夜賢者偈。三彌提請教佛陀,佛陀說出此偈。大迦旃延為眾比丘解釋此偈。佛陀對他的解釋表示讚賞。

134.《盧夷強耆一夜賢者經》(Lomasakaṅgiyabhaddekaratta sutta)。

天神旃檀 (Candana) 向比丘盧夷強耆詢問一夜賢者偈。盧夷強耆者請教佛陀,佛陀為他解釋此偈。

135.《小業分別經》(Cūḷakammavibhaṅga sutta)。

婆羅門青年蘇巴 (Subha Todeyyaputta) 詢問佛陀為何世人有長壽有短命,有多病有少病,有美有丑,有富有窮,有貴有賤,有智有愚?佛陀解釋這一切都由前生的業決定。業屬子自己。眾生是業的繼承人。業是子宮,業是親屬,業是仲裁。

136.《大業分別經》(Mahākammavibhaṅga Sutta)。

佛陀講述善業有善報,但也有受苦的情況;惡業有惡報,但也有得樂的情況,因為善惡的業報可能出現在現世、來生或別的時間。

137.《六處分別經》(Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀講述六內處、六外處、六識身、六觸身、十八意行、三十六有情句、三念住和無上調御士。

138.《總說分別經》(Uddesa vibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀講述比丘在觀察時,外識不分散,內識不鬆懈,不受取著干擾,將來就不會有生、老、死和苦。大迦旃延對此作出詳細解釋。

139 .《無凈分別經》(Araṇavibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀講述既不要追求欲樂,也不要折磨自己,而應該遵行中道(即八正道),達到正覺和涅槃。佛陀還講述不要說秘密話 (rahovāda),不要說令人難堪的話,說話要慢不要急,不要偏愛方言俚語,不要違背通用術語。

140.《界分別經》(Dhātuvibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀在陶師家住宿,為熱心求道的出家青年波古沙底 (Pakkusati) 解說六界。波古沙底聽後,請求佛陀授具足戒。佛陀告訴他,無衣缽者不能受具足戒。於是,波古沙底出外尋找衣缽,不幸途中被牛撞死.佛陀告訴眾比丘,波古沙底已擺脫五下分結而達到涅槃。

141.《諦分別經》(Saccavibhaṅga sutta)。

佛陀講述四聖諦並稱讚舍利弗和目犍連。然後,舍利弗為眾比丘詳細解說四聖諦。

142.《施分別經》(Dakkināvibhaṅga Sutta)。

佛陀姨母摩訶波闍波提將親手織成的新衣獻給佛陀,佛陀勸她施捨給僧團。由此,佛陀講述十四種施捨對象,上至佛陀,下至畜生類。進而講述七種對僧團的施捨,並認為此類施捨比前十四種施捨,功德更大。

(五)六處品 (Saḷyatanavagga )

143.《教給孤獨經》(Anāthapiṇḍikovāda sutta)。

給孤獨長者病危時,舍利弗在阿難陪同下為他說法,勉勵他不要執著六根、六境、六識、六觸、六受、六界、五蘊和四無色處。給孤獨長者死後升入兜率天。

144.《教闡陀經》(Channovāda sutta)。

比丘闡陀得了重病,舍利弗和大周那前去探望,發現他想自殺。他們勸他不要自殺,與他討論六根六識無我,無執著便無苦。後來,闡陀還是自殺了。舍利弗把這個消息告訴佛陀。佛陀認為如果為了再生而自殺,應該受到責備,但闡陀不是這種情況。

145.《教富樓那經》(Puṇṇovāda sutta)。

佛陀教導比丘富樓那:不執著六境,便不會有煩惱。佛陀聽說富樓那準備前往輸那國 (Sunāparonta),便告訴他那裡的人強悍凶暴。富樓那說不管遇到什麼傷害,他都會以善待人。後來,富樓那果然在那裡獲得五百信徒。

146.《教難陀迦經》(Nandakovāda sutta)。

難陀迦向眾比丘尼宣講六根、六境、六識是苦,無常,無我,教導她們修習七覺支,求得解脫。佛陀見眾比丘尼聽法後,還沒達到成熟。第二夭,難陀迦遵照佛陀的吩咐,又對眾比丘尼重說一次。然後,佛陀說這五百比丘尼中,

最低者也能得預流果。

147.《教羅眠羅小經》(Cūḷarahulovāda sutta)。

佛陀向羅睺羅講述一切感官享受瞬息即逝,認識了一切無常,便會厭離各種感官享受,由此達到解脫。羅睺羅聽從佛陀教海,達到漏盡解脫。

148.《六六經》(Chāchakka sutta)。

佛陀講述六六法門:六根、六境、六識、六觸、六受和六愛。佛陀教導眾比丘不要執著這些為我,而要予以摒棄。

149.《大六處經》(Mahāsaḷāyatanika sutta)。

佛陀講述要如實理解六根、六境、六識、六觸、六受都是瞬息即逝的。貪戀執著這些,便會產生身心煩惱。如實理解這些,便能遵行八正道,達到明解脫。

150.《頻頭城經》(Nagaravindeyya sutta)。

佛陀講述應該尊敬這樣的沙門婆羅門:摒棄貪嗔痴,內心平靜,一視同仁。

151.《乞食清凈經》(Piṇḍdapātapārisuddhi sutta)。

佛陀講述比丘乞食應該注意的事項。在乞食時,要保持自我反省,摒棄惡念,增強善念。

152.《根修習經》(Indriyabhāvanā sutta)。

婆羅門青年郁多羅講述自己老師的根修習法:「眼不見色,耳不聞聲」。佛陀告訴他說,若是這樣,盲人和聾人則是最好的根修習者了。然後,佛陀宣講「根修習法」,即對一切所見所聞漠然處之,住於舍,平靜,警覺,清醒。


A Summary of the 152 Suttas

By Bodhi Bhikkhu

PART one : THE ROOT FIFTY DISCOURSES

1 Mulapariyaya Sutta: The Root of All Things. The Buddha analyses the cognitive processes of four types of individuals – the untaught ordinary person, the disciple in higher training, the arahant, and the Tathagata. This is one of the deepest and most difficult suttas in the Pali Canon, and it is therefore suggested that the earnest student read it only in a cursory manner on a first reading of the Majjhima Nikaya, returning to it for an in-depth study after completing the entire collection.

2 Sabbasava Sutta: All the Taints. The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for restraining and abandoningthe taints, the fundamental defilements that maintain bondage to the round of birth and death.

3 Dhammadayada Sutta: Heirs in Dhamma’. The Buddha enjoins the bhikkhus to be heirs in Dhamma, not heirs in material things. The venerable Sariputta then continues on the same theme by explaining how disciples should train themselves to become the Buddha’s heirs in Dhamma.

4 Bhayabherava Sutta: Fear and Dread. The Buddha describes to a brahmin the qualities required of a monk who wishes to live alone in the forest. He then relates an account of his own attempts to conquer fear when striving for enlightenment.

5 Anangana Sutta: Without Blemishes. The venerable Sariputta gives a discourse to the bhikkhus on the meaning of blemishes, explaining that a bhikkhu becomes blemished when he falls under the sway of evil wishes.

6 Akankheyya Sutta: If a Bhikkhu Should Wish. The Buddha begins by stressing the importance of virtue as the foundation for a bhikkhu’s training; he then goes on to enumerate the benefits that a bhikkhu can reap by properly fulfilling the training.

7 Vatthupama Sutta: The Simile of the Cloth. With a simple simile the Buddha illustrates the difference between a defiled mind and a pure mind.

8 Sallekha Sutta: Effacement. The Buddha rejects the view that the mere attainment of the meditative absorptions is effacement and explains how ffacement is properly practised in his teaching.

9 Sammaditthi Sutta: Right View. A long and important discourse by the venerable Sariputta, with separate sections on the wholesome and the unwholesome, nutriment, the Four Noble Truths, the twelve factors of dependent origination, and the taints.

10 Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness. This is one of the fullest and most important suttas by the Buddha dealing with meditation, with particular emphasis on the development of insight. The Buddha begins by declaring the four foundations of mindfulness to be the direct path for the realisation of Nibbana, then gives detailed instructions on the four foundations: the contemplation of the body, feelings, mind, and mind-objects.

11 Culasihanada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. The Buddha declares that only in his Dispensation can the four grades of noble individuals be found, explaining how his teaching can be distinguished from other creeds through its unique rejection of all doctrines of self.

12 MahasThanada Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. The Buddha expounds the ten powers of a Tathagata, his four kinds of intrepidity, and other superior qualities, which entitle him to “roar his lion’s roar in the assemblies.”

13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering. The Buddha explains the full understanding of sensual pleasures, material form, and feelings; there is a long section on the dangers in sensual pleasures.

14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering. A variation on the preceding, ending in a discussion with Jain ascetics on the nature of pleasure and pain.

15 Anumana Sutta: Inference. The venerable Maha Moggallana enumerates the qualities that make a bhikkhu difficult to admonish and teaches how one should examine oneself to remove the defects in one’s character.

16 Cetokhila Sutta: The Wilderness in the Heart. The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus the five “wildernesses in the heart” and the five “shackles in the heart.”

17 Vanapattha Sutta: Jungle Thickets. A discourse on the conditions under which a meditative monk should remain living in a jungle thicket and the conditions under which he should go elsewhere.

18 Madhupindika Sutta: The Honey Ball. The Buddha utters a deep but enigmatic statement about “the source through which perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man.” This statement is elucidated by the venerable Maha Kaccana, whose explanation is praised by the Buddha.

19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Kinds of Thought. With reference to his own struggle for enlightenment, the Buddha explains the way to overcome unwholesome thoughts and replace them by wholesome thoughts.

20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta: The Removal of Distracting Thoughts. The Buddha teaches five methods for dealing with the unwholesome thoughts that may arise in the course of meditation.

21 Kakacupama Sutta: The Simile of the Saw. A discourse on the need to maintain patience when addressed with disagreeable words.

22 Alagaddupama Sutta: The Simile of the Snake. A bhikkhu named Arittha gives rise to a pernicious view that conduct prohibited by the Buddha is not really an obstruction. The Buddha reprimands him and, with a series of memorable similes, stresses the dangers in misapplying and misrepresenting the Dhamma. The sutta culminates in one of the most impressive disquisitions on non-self found in the Canon.

23 Vammika Sutta: The Ant-hill. A deity presents a monk with an obscure riddle, which is unravelled for him by the Buddha.

24 RathavinTta Sutta: The Relay Chariots. The venerable Punna Mantaniputta explains to Sariputta that the goal of the holy life, final Nibbana, is to be reached by way of the seven stages of purification.

25 Nivapa Sutta: The Bait. The Buddha uses the analogy of deer-trappers to make known to the bhikkhus the obstacles that confront them in their effort to escape from Mara’s control.

26 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Search. The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a long account of his own quest for enlightenment from the time of his life in the palace up to his transmission of the Dhamma to his first five disciples.

27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint. Using the analogy of a woodsman tracking down a big bull elephant, the Buddha explains how a disciple arrives at complete certainty of the truth of his teaching. The sutta presents a full account of the step-by-step training of the Buddhist monk.

28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint. The venerable Sariputta begins with a statement of the Four Noble Truths, which he then expounds byway of the contemplation of the four elements and the dependent origination of the five aggregates.

29 Mahasaropama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood.

30 Culasaropama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood. These two discourses emphasise that the proper goal of the holy life is the unshakeable deliverance of the mind, to which all other benefits are subsidiary.

31 Culagosinga Sutta: The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga. The Buddha meets three bhikkhus who are living in concord, “blending like milk and water,” and inquires how they succeed in living together so harmoniously.

32 Mahagosinga Sutta: The Greater Discourse in Gosinga. On a beautiful moonlit night a number of senior disciples meet together in a sala-tree wood and discuss what kind of bhikkhu could illuminate the wood. After each has answered according to his personal ideal, they go to the Buddha, who provides his own answer.

33 Mahagopalaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd. The Buddha teaches eleven qualities that prevent a bhikkhu’s growth in the Dhamma and eleven qualities that contribute to his growth.

34 Culagopalaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd. The Buddha explains the types of bhikkhus who “breast Mara’s stream” and get safely across to the further shore.

35 Culasaccaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka. The debater Saccaka boasts that in debate he can shake the Buddha up and down and thump him about, but when he finally meets the Buddha their discussion takes some unexpected turns.

36 Mahasaccaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Saccaka. The Buddha meets again with Saccaka and in the course of a discussion on “development of body” and “development of mind” he relates a detailed narrative on his own spiritual quest.

37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving. The venerable Maha Moggallana overhears the Buddha give a brief explanation to Sakka, ruler of gods, as to how a bhikkhu is liberated through the destruction of craving. Wishing to know if Sakka understood the meaning, he makes a trip to the heaven of the Thirty-three to find out.

38 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving. A bhikkhu named Sati promulgates the pernicious view that the same consciousness transmigrates from life to life. The Buddha reprimands him with a lengthy discourse on dependent origination, showing how all phenomena of existence arise and cease through conditions.

39 Maha-Assapura Sutta: The Greater Discourse at Assapura. The Buddha elucidates “the things that make one a recluse” with a discourse covering many aspects of the bhikkhu’s training.

40 Cula-Assapura Sutta: The Shorter Discourse at Assapura. The Buddha explains “the way proper tolthe recluse” to be not the mere outward practice of austerities but the inward purification from defilements.

41 Saleyyaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Sala.

42 Veranjaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Veranja. In these two nearly identical suttas the Buddha explains to groups of brahmin householders the courses of conduct leading to rebirth in lower realms and the courses leading to higher rebirth and deliverance.]

43 Mahavedalla Sutta: The Greater Series of Questions and Answers.

44 Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers. These two discourses take the form of discussions on various subtle points of Dhamma, the former between the venerable Maha Kotthita and the venerable Sariputta, the latter between the bhikkhuni Dhammadirma and the lay follower Visakha.

45 Cttladhammasamadana Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things.

46 Mahadhamtnasamadana Sutta: The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things. The Buddha explains, differently in each of the two suttas,
four ways of undertaking things, distinguished according to whether they are painful or pleasant now and whether they ripen in pain or pleasure in the future.

47 Vlmarhsaka Sutta: The Inquirer. The Buddha invites the bhikkhus to make a thorough investigation of himself in order to find out whether or not he can be accepted as fully enlightened.

48 Kosambiya Sutta: The Kosambians. During the period when the bhikkhus at Kosambi are divided by a dispute, the Buddha teaches them the six qualities that create love and respect and conduce to unity. He then explains seven extraordinary knowledges possessed by a noble disciple who has realised the fruit of stream-entry.

49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta: The Invitation of a Brahma. Baka the Brahma, a high divinity, adopts the pernicious view that the heavenly world over which he presides is eternal and that there is no higher state beyond. The Buddha visits him to dissuade him from that wrong view and engages him in a contest of Olympian dimensions.

50 Maratajjaruya Sutta: The Rebuke to Mara. Mara attempts to harass the venerable Maha Moggallana, but the latter relates a story of the distant past to warn Mara of the dangers in creating trouble for a disciple of the Buddha.

PART TWO: THE MIDDLE FIFTY DISCOURSES

51 Kandaraka Sutta: To Kandaraka. The Buddha discusses four kinds of persons found in the world – the one who torments himself, the one who torments others, the one who torments both himself and others, and the one who torments neither but lives a truly holy life.

52 Atthakanagara Sutta: The man from Atthakanagara. The venerable Ananda teaches eleven “doors to the Deathless” by which a bhikkhu can attain the supreme security from bondage.

53 Sekha Sutta: The Disciple in Higher Training. At the Buddha’s request the venerable Ananda gives a discourse on the practices undertaken by a disciple in higher training.

54 Potaliya Sutta: To Potaliya. The Buddha teaches a presumptuous interlocutor the meaning of “the cutting off of affairs” in his discipline. The sutta offers a striking series of similes on the dangers in sensual pleasures.

55 Jtvaka Sutta: To Jxvaka. The Buddha explains the regulations he has laid down concerning meat-eating and defends his disciples against unjust accusations.

56 Upali Sutta: To Upali. The wealthy and influential householder Upali, a prominent supporter of the Jains, proposes to go to the Buddha and refute his doctrine. Instead, he finds himself converted by the Buddha’s “converting magic.”

57 Kukkuravatika Sutta: The Dog-Duty Ascetic. The Buddha meets two ascetics, one who imitates the behaviour of a dog, the other who imitates the behaviour of an ox. He reveals to them the futility of their practices and gives them a discourse on kamma and its fruit.

58 Abhayarajakumara Sutta: To Prince Abhaya. The Jain leader, Nigantha Nataputta, teaches Prince Abhaya a “twohorned question” with which’ he can refute the Buddha’s doctrine. The Buddha escapes the dilemma and explains what kind of speech he would and would not utter.

59 Bahuvedaniya Sutta: The Many Kinds of Feeling. After resolving a disagreement about the classification of feelings, the Buddha enumerates the different kinds of pleasure and joy that beings can experience.

60 Apannaka Sutta: The Incontrovertible Teaching. The Buddha gives a group of brahmin householders an “incontrovertible teaching” that will help them steer clear of the tangle in contentious views.

61 Ambalatthikarahulovada Sutta: Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika. The Buddha admonishes his son, the novice Rahula, on the dangers in lying and stresses the importance of constant reflection on one’s motives.

62 Maharahulovada Sutta: The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula. The Buddha teaches Rahula the meditation on the elements, on mindfulness of breathing, and other topics.

63 Ctllamalunkya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta. A bhikkhu threatens to leave the Order unless the Buddha answers his metaphysical questions. With the simile of the man struck by a poisoned arrow, the Buddha makes plain exactly what he does and does not teach.

64 Mahamalunkya Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta. The Buddha teaches the path to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.

65 Bhaddali Sutta: To Bhaddali. The Buddha admonishes a recalcitrant monk and explains the disadvantages of refusing to submit to the training.

66 Latukikopama Sutta: The Simile of the Quail. The Buddha drives home the importance of abandoning all fetters, no matter how harmless and trifling they may seem.

67 Catuma Sutta: At Catuma. The Buddha teaches a group of newly ordained monks four dangers to be overcome by those who have gone forth into homelessness.

68 Nalakapana Sutta: At Nalakapana. The Buddha explains why, when his disciples die, he declares their level of attainment and plane of rebirth.

69 Gulissani Sutta: Gulissani. The venerable Sariputta gives a discourse on the proper training of a forest-dwelling bhikkhu.

70 Kitagiri Sutta: At Kltagiri. The Buddha admonishes a group of disobedient monks, in the course of which he presents an important sevenfold classification of noble disciples.

71 Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on the Threefold True Knowledge. The Buddha denies possessing complete knowledge of everything at all times and defines the threefold knowledge he does possess.

72 Aggivacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire. The Buddha explains to a wanderer why he does not hold any speculative views. With the simile of an extinguished fire he tries to indicate the destiny of the liberated being.

73 Mahavacchagotta Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Vacchagotta. The story of the wanderer Vacchagotta’s full conversion to the Dhamma, his going forth, and his attainment of arahantship.

74 Dtghanakha Sutta: To Dlghanakha. The Buddha counters the disclaimers of a sceptic and teaches him the way to liberation through the contemplation of feelings.

75 Magandiya Sutta: To Magandiya. The Buddha meets the hedonist philosopher Magandiya and points out to him the dangers in sensual pleasures, the benefits of renunciation, and the meaning of Nibbana.

76 Sandaka Sutta: To Sandaka. The venerable Ananda teaches a group of wanderers four ways that negate the living of the holy life and four kinds of holy life without consolation. Then he explains the holy life that is truly fruitful.

77 Mahasakuludayi Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Sakuludayin. The Buddha teaches a group of wanderers the reasons why his disciples venerate him and look to him for guidance.

78 Samanamandika Sutta: Samanamandikaputta. The Buddha explains how a man is “one who has attained to the supreme attainment.”

79 Culasakuludayi Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Sakuludayin. The Buddha examines the doctrine of a wandering ascetic, using the simile of “the most beautiful girl in the country” to expose the folly of his claims.

80 Vekhanassa Sutta: To Vekhanassa. A discourse partly similar to the preceding one, with an additional section on sensual pleasure.

81 Ghatikara Sutta: Ghatikara the Potter. The Buddha recounts the story of the chief lay supporter of the past Buddha Kassapa.

82 Ratthapala Sutta: On Ratthapala. The story of a young man who goes forth into homelessness against the wishes of his parents and later returns to visit them.

83 Makhadeva Sutta: King Makhadeva. The story of an ancient lineage of kings and how their virtuous tradition was broken due to negligence.

84 Madhura Sutta: At Madhura. The venerable Maha Kaccana examines the brahmin claim that brahmins are the highest caste.

85 Bodhirajakumara Sutta: To Prince Bodhi. The Buddha counters the claim that pleasure is to be gained through pain with an account of his own quest for enlightenment.

86 Angulimala Sutta: On Angulimala. The story of how the Buddha subdued the notorious criminal Angulimala and led him to the attainment of arahantship.

87 Piyajatika Sutta: Born from Those Who Are Dear. Why the Buddha teaches that sorrow and grief arise from those who are dear.

88 Bahitika Sutta: The Cloak. The venerable Ananda answers King Pasenadi’s questions on the Buddha’s behaviour.

89 Dhammacetiya Sutta: Monuments to the Dhamma. King Pasenadi offers ten reasons why he shows such deep veneration to the Buddha.

90 Kannakatthala Sutta: At Kannakatthala. King Pasenadi questions the Buddha on omniscience, on caste distinctions, and on the gods.

91 Brahmayu Sutta: Brahmayu. An old and erudite brahmin learns about the Buddha, goes to meet him, and becomes his disciple.

92 Sela Sutta: To Sela. The brahmin Sela questions the Buddha, gains faith in him, and becomes a monk along with his company of pupils.

93 Assalayana Sutta: To Assalayana. A young brahmin approaches the Buddha to argue the thesis that the brahmins are the highest caste.

94 Ghotamukha Sutta: To Ghotamukha. A discussion between a brahmin and a bhikkhu on whether the renunciate life accords with the Dhamma.

95 Canki Sutta: With Canki. The Buddha instructs a young brahmin on the preservation of truth, the discovery of truth, and the final arrival at truth.

96 Esukari Sutta: To Esukarl. The Buddha and a brahmin discuss the brahmins’ claim to superiority over the other castes.

97 Dhananjani Sutta: To Dhananjani. The venerable Sariputta admonishes a brahmin who tries to excuse his negligence by appeal to his many duties. Later, when he is close to death, Sariputta guides him to rebirth in the Brahma-world but is reprimanded by the Buddha for having done so.

98 Vasettha Sutta: To Vasettha. The Buddha resolves a dispute between two young brahmins on the qualities of a true brahmin.

99 Subha Sutta: To Subha. The Buddha answers a young brahmin’s questions and teaches him the way to rebirth in the Brahma-world.

100 Sangarava Sutta: To Sangarava. A brahmin student questions the Buddha about the basis on which he teaches the fundamentals of the holy life.

PART THREE: THE FINAL FIFTY DISCOURSES

101 Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha. The Buddha examines the Jain thesis that liberation is to be attained by self-mortification, proposing a different account of how striving becomes fruitful.

102 Paficattaya Sutta: The Five and Three. A survey of various speculative views about the future and the past and of misconceptions about Nibbana.

103 Kinti Sutta: What Do You Think About Me? The Buddha explains how the monks can resolve disagreements about the Dhamma.

104 Samagama Sutta: At Samagama. The Buddha lays down disciplinary procedures for the guidance of the Sangha to ensure its harmonious functioning after his demise.

105 Sunakkhatta Sutta: To Sunakkhatta. The Buddha discusses the problem of an individual’s overestimation of his progress in meditation.

106 Anenjasappaya Sutta: The Way to the Imperturbable. The Buddha explains the approaches to various levels of higher meditative states culminating in Nibbana.

107 Ganakamoggallana Sutta: To Ganaka Moggallana. The Buddha sets forth the gradual training of the Buddhist monk and describes himself as the “shower of the way.”

108 Gopakamoggallana Sutta: With Gopaka Moggallana. The venerable Ananda explains how the Sangha maintains its unity and internal discipline after the passing away of the Buddha.

109 Mahapunnama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Fullmoon Night. A bhikkhu questions the Buddha on the five aggregates, clinging, personality view, and the realisation of non-self.

110 Culapunnama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Fullmoon Night. The Buddha explains the differences between an “untrue man” and a “true man.”
111 Anupada Sutta: One by One As They Occurred. The Buddha describes the venerable Sariputta’s development of insight when he was training for the attainment of arahantship.

112 Chabbisodhana Sutta: The Sixfold Purity. The Buddha explains how a bhikkhu should be interrogated when he claims final knowledge and how he would answer if his claim is genuine.

113 Sappurisa Sutta: The True Man. The Buddha distinguishes the character of a true man from that of an untrue man.

114 Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta: To Be Cultivated and Not To Be Cultivated. The Buddha sets up three brief outlines of things to be cultivated and not to be cultivated, and the venerable Sariputta fills in the details.

115 Bahudhatuka Sutta: The Many Kinds of Elements. The Buddha expounds in detail the elements, the sense bases, dependent origination, and the kinds of situations that are possible and impossible in the world.

116 Isigili Sutta: Isigili: The Gullet of the Seers. An enumeration of the names and epithets of paccekabuddhas who formerly dwelt on the mountain Isigili.

117 Mahcicattarisaka Sutta: The Great Forty. The Buddha defines the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path and explains their inter-relationships.

118 Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing. An exposition of sixteen steps in mindfulness of breathing and of the relation of this meditation to the four foundations of mindfulness and the seven enlightenment factors.

119 Kayagatasati Sutta: Mindfulness of the Body. The Buddha explains how mindfulness of the body should be developed and cultivated and the benefits to which it leads.

120 Sankharupapatti Sutta\ Reappearance by Aspiration. The Buddha teaches how one can be reborn in accordance with one’s wish.

121 Culasunnata Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on Voidness. The Buddha instructs Ananda on the “genuine, undistorted, pure descent into voidness.”

122 Mahasunhata Sutta: The Greater Discourse on Voidness. Upon finding that the bhikkhus have grown fond of socialising, the Buddha stresses the need for seclusion in order to abide in voidness.

123 Acchariya-abbhUta Sutta: Wonderful and Marvellous. At a gathering of bhikkhus the venerable Ananda recounts the wonderful and marvellous events that preceded and attended the birth of the Buddha.

124 Bakkula Sutta: Bakkula. The elder disciple Bakkula enumerates his austere practices during his eighty years in the Sangha and exhibits a remarkable death.

125 Dantabhumi Sutta: The Grade of the Tamed. By analogy with the taming of an elephant, the Buddha explains how he tames his disciples.

126 Bhumija Sutta: Bhumija. The Buddha brings forward a series of similes to illustrate the natural fruitfulness of the Noble Eightfold Path.

127 Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha. The venerable Anuruddha clarifies the difference between the immeasurable deliverance of mind and the exalted deliverance of mind.

128 Upakkilesa Sutta: Imperfections. The Buddha discusses the various impediments to meditative progress he encountered during his quest for enlightenment, with particular reference to the divine eye.

129 Balapandita Sutta: Fools and Wise Men. The sufferings of hell and animal life into which a fool is reborn through his evil deeds, and the pleasures of heaven that a wise man reaps through his good deeds.

130 Devaduta Sutta: The Divine Messengers. The Buddha describes the sufferings of hell thaj£ await the evil-doer after death.

131 Bhaddekaratta Sutta: One Fortunate Attachment.

132 Anandabhaddekaratta Sutta: Ananda and One Fortunate Attachment.

133 Mahakaccanabhaddekaratta Sutta: Maha Kaccana and One Fortunate Attachment.

134 Lomasakangiyabhaddekaratta Sutta: Lomasakangiya and One Fortunate Attachment. The above four suttas all revolve around a stanza spoken
by the Buddha emphasising the need for present effort in developing insight into things as they are.

135 Culakammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Exposition of Action. The Buddha explains how kamma accounts for the fortune and misfortune of beings.

136 Mahakammavibhanga Sutta: The Greater Exposition of Action. The Buddha reveals subtle complexities in the workings of kamma that overturn simplistic dogmas and sweeping generalizations.

137 Salayatanavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Sixfold Base. The Buddha expounds the six internal and external sense bases and other related topics.

138 Uddesavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of a Summary. The venerable Maha Kaccana elaborates upon a brief saying of the Buddha on the training of  consciousness and the overcoming of agitation.

139 Aranavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Non-conflict. The Buddha gives a detailed discourse on things that lead to conflict and things that lead away from conflict.

140 Dhatuvibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Elements. Stopping at a potter’s workshop for the night, the Buddha meets a monk named Pukkusati and gives him a profound discourse on the elements culminating in the four foundations of arahantship.

141 Saccavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Truths. The venerable Sariputta gives a detailed analysis of the Four Noble Truths.

142 Dakkhinavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Offerings. The Buddha enumerates fourteen kinds of personal offerings and seven kinds of offerings made to the Sangha.

143 Anathapindikovada Sutta: Advice to Anathapindika. The venerable Sariputta is called to Anathapindika’s deathbed and gives him a stirring sermon on non-attachment.

144 Channovada Sutta: Advice to Channa. The venerable Channa, gravely ill, takes his own life despite the attempts of two brother-monks to dissuade him.

145 Punnovada Sutta: Advice to Punna. The bhikkhu Punna receives a short exhortation from the Buddha and decides to go live among the fierce people of a remote territory.

146 Alandakovada Sutta: Advice from Nandaka. The venerable Nandaka gives the nuns a discourse on impermanence.

147 CUlarahulovada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse of Advice to Rahula. The Buddha gives Rahula a discourse that leads him to the attainment of arahantship.

148 Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sets of Six. An especially profound and penetrating discourse on the contemplation of all the factors of sense experience as not-self.

149 Mahasalayatanika Sutta: The Great Sixfold Base. How wrong view about the six kinds of sense experience leads to future bondage, while right view about them leads to liberation.

150 Nagaravindeyya Sutta: To the Nagaravindans. The Buddha explains to a group of brahmin householders what kind of recluses and brahmins should be venerated.

151 Pindapataparisuddhi Sutta: The Purification of Almsfood. The Buddha teaches Sariputta how a bhikkhu should review himself to make himself worthy of almsfood. 152 lndrtyabhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties. The Buddha explains the supreme development of control over the sense faculties and the arahant’s mastery over his perceptions.

152 lndrtyabhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties. The Buddha explains the supreme development of control over the sense faculties and the arahant’s mastery over his perceptions.

Notes: The above summary is extracted from Bodhi Bhikkhu’s version.


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【Chanworld.org收集整理】2018.03.07-2018.03.07-MG